Friday, March 29, 2019
Is Climate Change Natural Or Man Made Environmental Sciences Essay
Is temper dislodge Natural Or Man do Environmental Sciences Es distinguishClimate is the long term av date of referencege refinement conditions of different regions on country. Some places are hot while former(a)s hold back a cold mode. The different types of climes are namely, tropic, midaltitudinal, subtropical, arctic, subarctic, humid continental, Mediterranean, monsoon, desert and tropical wet-dry. The mood of the orb is continuously changing. This swap over is non aroundthing new it is a real old concept perhaps since the birth of the universe.The positionors or think for the climate change ignore be divided into two sides. maven side is of the view that this is a natural ferment that ordain and has to derive whereas the other side claims that the change has occurred be causal agent of the human activities on the earth. later in our essay we testament be discussing these reasoning in more than than erudition and with the help of some facts and figures .Literature ReviewDefinitionsDistinction betwixt climate and weather.Most of the people utilization climate and weather terms synonymously, progress the two terms have a difference between them. Climate is the long term average weather conditions of different regions on earth whereas weather is how the strain behaves in a shorter period of clipping. Hence we can say that the distinct feature between weather and climate is the total of time.What is Global Warming and Global Dimming?Global warm up refers to the continuous calefacient of conceptions surface. It occurs when the Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) traps the heat and light from the sun around the atmosphere of primer which mannequins the root cause of the temperature increase. Some of the green house gases are, coke paper Dioxide, body of water vapor, methane etc.Whereas Anup Shah verbalise, Global dimming is the opposite of humannesswide warming and should not be confuse with it. It is the average drop-off in heat that is reaching the earths surface. Pollutants from the dodo fuels in the air results in the larger number of droplets which makes the clouds more reflective. much of the suns heat and light is therefore reflected back in the space. (Anup Shah, 2005)Climate Change History Timeline globes climate is unstable and is continuously changing. It has experienced several nut ages and warm periods. To make things simpler and focused we can split the history of climate change into several phases. These phases are briefly discussed belowIf we smell at The Big Bang Theory which is about the creation of the entire solar system. The temperature of the earth was very high because of which it expanded rapidly, and then it cooled d aver abounding for rain, which became the origin of the very first ocean on earths surface.Then from 3.8 to 2.5 gazillion years past, the first degrade masses appeared and life developed on the planet. The atmosphere was still toxic and mainly consisted of am monia and methane, the sun was wholly 75% as bright as today, this may depicts that the surface was coer with ice, but in reality it was warmer, scientist resign this situation by reflexion that this was because of the greenhouse gases i.e. methane which prevented freezing.Next phase is of about 2.5 to 500 cardinal years ago. In this era the oxygen level on the surface killed to increase, tended to(p) by the photosynthetic algae. There are enough evidences of glaciations periods in this era and scientists still discuss this scenario.The Earths core finally cooled down to level same to today about 500 to 250 million years ago. The volcanic eruptions became rarer. Earth generally saw a lot of glacial activity in this period because of the two poles agnizen as South and North Poles, which get very less solar energy. The rapid development of photosynthetic organisms make the air more breathable. rough 250 to 65 million years ago the climate of Earth became dry and seasonal wi th high temperature differences. More land came into contact with the oceans and therefore the humidity increase. This was the era of dinosaurs.Then the dinosaurs went extinct and mammals took over around 65 to 2.7 million years ago. The planet experienced fast warming during this period. The orbiculate temperature shot up by 5-8 grad Celsius. This warming was enhanced by the methane bubbles which were previously hidden beneath the ice sheets. About 33 million yearn ago the very first glaciers canceled to form in Antarctica this means that the sea level fell and ice grew. Than from 2.7 million to 12000 years ago a lot of the surface of Earth was cover with ice. It is been estimated that there were 25-30 Ice Ages in the history. Around 12000 years ago the last Ice Age ended and the Earth again entered to a warmer phase. From 950 to 1250 the Vikings started to emigrate from Iceland, Greenland. Excellent weather in many regions of the Earth gave a boost to the population growth.The things then rapidly changed in the 20th atomic number 6 when industrial enterprise took place. It increased the temperature of Earth on a average of 0.7 degree Celsius.The British Meteorological Office predicts that 2010 leave behind become the hottest year since the ancestor of temperature records in 1880.The DebateThere are two sides of the debate as we have stated this earlier in our essay. One root word supports the inclination that the major causes of the global climate change are the activities by humanity themselves. These activities include burning of fossil fuels, deforestation etc. the other group challenges this view with their research that the change is the natural serve well and it is occurring since the birth of the earth.The world temperature is increasing and it is occurring due to the activities of the people living in this world. The major culprits of this process are the developed countries of the world whose economies significantly rely on industrial enterprise which results into the excessive emissions of atomic number 6 in the atmosphere. United States was the drawer in this topic followed by UK, Germany, France etc, but now China is taking over the lead and becoming the number one cause of global warming. Pearce said, Chinas annual carbon dioxide emissions have indeed recently surpassed those of the US (Fred Pearce, 2010). He further clarifies that this does not means that the whole blame should be given to China because industrialization is new to China and if we revise the statistics of carbon emissions we will come to hunch over that major role in degrading the environment is played by other countries the likes of US , UK, Germany and other countries of Europe.An International team headed by Nikla Hohne from the Cologne, Germany, office of Ecofys. An international climate change consultancy came up with the findings from the country by country analysis of who has contributed to the climate change and to what extent. Th e team as well look upon other green house gases i.e. methane which is second most important aft(prenominal) carbon dioxide. Methane is also produced by human activities from draining marshes and deforestation to oxen farming. Once methane was added to the analysis the team came up with evidence that the poor countries of the world play a much greater begin in global warming. Hohne says, Others do worse. (Nikla Hohne, 2010). For instance Brazils contribution rises from1 part to 5 percent of global total. Indonesia which extensively practices deforestation rises by a factor of between 10 to 90. The studies in this analysis estimated Indonesia as a third greatest contributor to global warming after China and US.To over come these problems and justify themselves developed countries claims that they are taking action to cut carbon emissions into the atmosphere. On example of this action is the Kyoto protocol 1997. This protocol required the developed countries to start cutting e missions by almost 5 percent by 2008-2012. In this protocol certain quotas were assigned to industries. With in the limits of the quota they can pollute the environment. Larry Lohmann called it The conjuring trick of the Market, (Larry Lohmann, 2002) because the a certain clause was added by the US elites in The Kyoto Protocol which allowed Northern countries to meet the emission targets by commerce carbon dioxide with countries that had surplus. The trading of carbon did not solved the problem but in fact increased the climate change subject. Jens Stoltenberg who led a UN- commissioned labor movement force to identify ways to raise finances which could be used in poor countries to deal with the climate change effects said, Carbon pricing has a double climate effect- its a huge source for revenue, but also gives the right incentive for reducing emissions by do it expensive to pollute, (Jens Stoltenberg, 2010). The Kyoto Protocol gave an other benefit to the industries that hey can have a trade with the people who grow plants and trees as fountainhead. But it was impossible to cypher the intake of carbon by trees which make it ineffective. Larry Lohmann said that 30 more protocols with twice the level of Kyoto protocol are needed to discipline the situation. other the impact will be devastating.According to a special write up more than 1000 scientists globally are changing their judging and saw that the process of change is natural. These scientists also included people from Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). the report included comments by some well known people. for instance, Nobel Prize-Winning Stanford University Physicist Dr. Robert B. Laughlin, who won the Nobel Prize for physics in 1998, and was formerly a research scientist at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory said Please reside calm The Earth will heal itself Climate is beyond our part to controlEarth doesnt care about governments or their legislation. You cant find mu ch unquestionable global warming in present-day weather observations. Climate change is a matter of geologic time, something that the earth routinely does on its own without asking anyones permission or explaining itself. (Dr.Robert, 2010). The scientist said that green house effect is not permanent and the predictions of global warming are not support by the reliable data by IPCC.The economic crisis in 2009 which was very severe and affected almost every nation in the world resulted in the reduction in the carbon emissions. A report from temperament Geo science supports this statement by giving the figures like 1.3 percent reduction in the emissions of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere due to the global fiscal crisis. The article by Hoffman says that estimated carbon dioxide emissions from deforestation have also been reduced. Doug L. Hoffman said carbon dioxide will rise by 4.8% In 2010, proving that what should be hard-boiled as good news is not welcomed in climate change circl es. Doug L. Hoffman, 2010).DiscussionAfter analyzing the both sides with reference to the articles. I am of the opinion that climate is changing because of the anthropogenetic global warming i.e. made by the human activities. It is the humans themselves who are threatening their own home. They have increased the activities which involve the emission of greenhouse gases.Increased industrialization is the root cause of the problem in which dangerous gases like carbon dioxide, nitrogen, water vapours etc are emitted in the atmosphere. On the other yield I we guess third world countries were there is less industrialization we come to know that they are also the major contributors in degrading the environment. They emit methane which is second most dangerous after carbon dioxide, into the atmosphere in the process of deforestation which is required for the agricultural needs to grow food and other cash crops. A classic example of this earlier given in this essay is of Indonesia and B razil. All these emissions give rise to the greenhouse effect in which the greenhouse gases (GHGs) accumulate around the surface of earth and block the rays from the sun. some part of these rays are reflected back into the space and the remaining enter the atmosphere were again some of it is reflected back by the intersection with clouds and other part reaches the surface. The surface of the earth also reflects back some rays which are than trap by these GHGs. This whole process gives a boost to the temperature of the Earth. The more the emissions of GHGs the more the impact will be. The image below illustrates the situation more clearly.The carbon dioxide emissions have increased by 0.5 percent per year and it is a major contributor in the greenhouse effect with almost 60 percent of share. The emissions of CFCs are also increasing because of the increased use of refrigerators etc. These anthropogenic activities will cause an average increase in the global temperatures between 1.5C and 6.8C from 2000 to 2100.From my point of view we are unavailing to rectify the devastating impacts of global warming and other anthropogenic activities with the help of Protocols like Kyoto Protocol because they are bias and are in the interest of do itly certain parties. Although we have placed the price on the carbon that is being emitted in the environment but have given industries some benefits as well that in this cause can be quasi piazza rights. We have designed the protocol but we are almost unable to implement it because the measurement required is very difficult.Whereas on the other hand I do not oppose the second group complete because there is to some extent reality in their piece of work. When they say that the anthropogenic global warming is not supported by the completed data by the concerned organizations they are right. Some of the changes in the climate also occur because of the natural changes in the conditions, for instance. Hurricanes, floods etc. some scientist also claim that the change in the climate is because of the uncertainty in the earths orbit. finishingIn the end I would like to conclude by saying that from my point of view the major cause of the climate change is the anthropogenic activities i.e. global warming and global dimming which are caused by the increased use of fossil fuels. It is we humans who are responsible for this and at the same time it is we who are unable to control its devastating impacts on our climate.If the process will continue with the same pace, one day we will have to fall apart a lot of problems the ice in the south will start melting which will increase the water level of the world. Higher temperature will cause increased earthquakes, the rare species on earth will extinct, their will be food shortages which will affect our increasing population. Increased sea levels will cause tsunamis. All these consequences have there own further impacts on the economies of the countries. Therefore more pr actical steps should be initiated by the related agencies in controlling the problem. As an individual we people also have to bear some responsibility towards the climate. We should try to adopt environmental friendly techniques in our daily routine work.