Thursday, November 28, 2019
Analysis of the effects that the media have on elections in Germany and the UK. This paper examines the direct effects that the media have on voter preference. The author focuses on the media coverage and political campaigning strategies in Great Britain and Germany, evaluating media coverage of the previous two national elections in both states, and examining press media coverage of campaigning and the overall effect it plays in the election process. Once voter interest is obtained, appealing political media images are a good and often successful means of influencing the popular vote. As one-third of voters know nothing about particular politicians yet still hold strong emotions toward them, the voter attitude toward candidates and political parties is a good predictor of voter decisions. Various studies establish the ability of the political advertisements to lodge in viewer minds elements by which politicians can be judged, furthermore; political advertising can provide voters with specific image characteristics of candidates that relate to voter choice. We will write a custom essay sample on Media Influence in Determining Voter Behavior or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Cwalina, Falkowski, Kaid concluded political advertising can possibly affect voters in three ways: 1) Advertisements can strengthen already existing voter preferences; 2) Advertisements can weaken existing preferences of uncertain voters and may cause change of such preferences; 3) Advertisements can re-create the image of the candidate.
Sunday, November 24, 2019
Hydrogen Peroxide essays An investigation into how the amount of oxygen is produced by changing one variable effects the decomposition of Hydrogen Peroxide in the presence of the enzyme. This shows us that when the H2O2 has reacted with the catalyst this is what it produces. There are many ways in which the amount of oxygen produced could be affected. I believe that, surface area of the chip, temperature of liquid that is reacting, the concentration of the liquid or the amount used are going to be the major variables in the experiment. From these variables I clearly believe that looking at the concentration of the liquid, in this case H2O2, will be the best experiment to do. Also I believe that this will give us a strong set of results with which we will be able to pull good clear conclusions from. To keep all other variables constant so they do not influence my results, we will do all experiments in the same room hopefully the temperature remains constant in that one room, all potato chips will be cut with a size 4 cork bora and then cut into 3 centimetres, as to keep each test fair. Also the volume of the concentration H2O2 will remain at 10ml3 and the amount water that is placed into the measuring cylinder will also be 10ml3. To set-up this experiment will be quite tricky, as we have to place the bung into the water and up the measuring cylinder very quickly as to not loose any of the oxygen produced in the first few seconds. We will overcome this problem by paralysing the measuring cylinder with a clamp stand, and another to hold the boiling tube where the H2O2 and potato chip are; which contain the enzymes used to catalyse the H2O2 to help produce the oxygen a lot quicker. We used the water in the measuring cylinder to measure the overall amount of oxygen produced by seeing how much the oxygen had displaced. This a diagram of how my experiment is set up: 3 boiling tubes, 3 measuring cylinders, 3 wa...
Thursday, November 21, 2019
EWRT 211 Lessons - Personal Statement Example To begin with, the lessons in organization and analysis helped me to improve upon my reading and comprehension skills because I was forced to read and understand the new language that I was learning. I will admit that it was a struggle at first and I wished to have translations available for me but I knew that it would defeat the purpose of this class. So I applied my analytical skills as best as I could and, even with my grammatical mistakes, I am able to say that I was able to understand the lesson. Although my own thoughts on the topic might have been unclear to the reader at the start due to my language limitation. I found myself improving quite a lot when the lessons allowed me to develop my own vivid examples, which in turn helped me to better convey my thoughts in complete sentences. The chance to proofread myself also afforded me to catch my grammatical errors and correct them whenever possible. As my professor, you will also note the great improvement in my written assignments as I progressed in class. Finally being able to provide specific evidence for claims and discussing them in depth has helped me mature as a writer and developed my brains language skills as well. The result of my hard work in this class is that I am now a more accomplished writer in the English language. I am also able to completely analyze the written word and convey my own opinions on the matter in a method that is easily understood by others. My academic maturity in terms of English language use has become more pronounced and has resulted in a remarkable improvement in my confidence as a student when submitting my written work.
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Equity And Trust Law Assignment - Essay Example In both areas Lord Diplock can be seen to challenge the validity of legal technicalities and create a more just legal system with a move away from Ã¢â¬Ënatural justiceÃ¢â¬â¢ in individual determinations to general principles of fairness towards the wider public. Lord DiplockÃ¢â¬â¢s key contributions to equity law occurred in: 1) In United Scientific Holdings Ltd v Burnley Borough Council 1, Lord Diplock proclaimed that the systems had, quite simply, become fused and that no distinction was to be drawn between law and equity. This statement by Lord Diplock was accepted unanimously by the judges in the House of Lords and propelled the debate on this issue further. The case concerned the timing of the service of notices triggering rent-review clauses. 2) In Gissing v Gissing 2; on the subject of equitable rights and the interests of the beneficiary in a trust case, Lord Diplock suggested that it did not matter whether the trust was seen as a constructive, resulting or other form of implied trust. Lord Diplock's judgment in Gissing effectively created what is now referred to as a common intention constructive trust. Essentially Diplock held that where the legal title to a property was owned by one person, cohabitees would be held to share a beneficial interest in the property even if they had not contributed directly to the purchase price (thus falling beyond the protection of the resulting trust) as long as they could provide evidence that both cohabitees had a common intention that the beneficial interest would be shared, and that the legal owner had induced the beneficiary to act to his own detriment in reliance of this agreement. Crucially, however, he saw no need to properly establish the boundaries of this principle, or to distinguish common intention constructive trusts from implied or presumed resulting trusts. Lord Diplock's failure to properly distinguish between resulting and constructive trusts has led to a very dangerous ambiguity and uncertainty in this area of law, which has arguably, ever since threatened to defeat precisely what Lord Diplock set out to achieve: the protection of the cohabitee with no legal title. 3) Pettitt v Pettitt 3; this case established that a person who claims to have contributed to the purchase price of property which stands in the name of him/herself and another can rely on the well known presumption of equity that a person who has contributed a share of the purchase price of property is entitled to a corresponding proportionate beneficial interest in the property by way of implied or resulting trust. This Ã¢â¬Ëpresumption of advancement ruleÃ¢â¬â¢ in resulting trusts has been widely criticised as anachronistic. In particular, the gender bias of the rule is no longer acceptable; in fact it contravenes Article 5 of the Seventh Protocol to the European Convention on Human Rights.4 Lord Diplock described it as being based on the mores of propertied classes of the nineteenth ce ntury with little relevance to modern life. As Lord Diplock put it; Ã¢â¬Å"The emergence of a property-owning, particularly a real-property-mortgaged-to-a-building-society-owning, democracy requires the presumption to be reconsidered.Ã¢â¬ 5 4) Hadmor Productions Ltd v Hamilton 6; in this case Lord Diplock held that the Court of Appeal was
Monday, November 18, 2019
Application of Business Vocabulary in Financial Articles - Literature review Example In the article, the writer uses the keywords Baby Boomers, Generation X, and Generation Y. Baby Boomers are the children that were born in the post World War II economic boom. In the article, Keller uses the term as the oldest of the definable generational segments and further describes their propensity for being health and fashion conscious. Generation X and Generation Y are market segments that are differentiated by age, with Generation X being the older set. Keller uses the generational set as market segments and points out that the overlap between 18-34 is the fastest growing segment. The author makes no social or cultural comments on these segments. In the article titled "Six Tips for Buying or Expanding a Business" the author offers sound advice on how to enhance a business's chance for success. The author, Jeff Stone, takes the reader from building a solid foundation through the important aspect of making a profit. Stone also includes the intermediary steps of planning and seeking help when advantageous. The article advises the small business community on seeking investments and financing and the requirements that the financial institutions may require for success. These common sense issues include things such as creating a good brand image and keeping accurate company records. In the article Stone uses the keywords Small Business, Small Business Administration, and Business Plan. While the legal definition of a small business may vary from state to state or be dependant upon the institution involved, it is generally defined as a business that employs a small number of people. In Stone's article, he defines it and uses it in the context as those businesses that are of such small size they are especially vulnerable to changing conditions or lack of planning. The Small Business Administration (SBA) is a government agency designed to provide a wide variety of programs for small businesses. These can include everything from planning to financing. Stone uses the term in context with the planning help that is available at the SBA. A business plan is a well thought out and long term approach for planning and running a company. The author elaborates on this definition and includes many of the aspects of a business plan such as the necessity to obtain financing and benchmarks for measuring success. In an article published in 2002, author Jacqueline J. Kennelly argues that free trade and the associated movements towards globalization may have a negative effect on women's health care and feminism in general. Published in Canadian Woman Studies and titled "Making Connections: Women's Health and the Anti-Globalization Movement", the author argues the pros and cons of free trade and free trade associations and the impact of anti-globalization efforts. The author contends that the anti-globalization movement is often perceived as a white male-dominated institution and as such tends to overlook women's issues. Much of the argument centers on the movement towards privatization of health care systems and how they diminish the health care available to women.Ã
Friday, November 15, 2019
Michael Jackson Approach To Dance Drama Essay World-renowned for his influence on the international music and dance scene, Michael Jackson is an iconic figure in the entertainment industry. His talent in being able to fuse his music and dance style together so seamlessly was probably one of the reasons for his booming success as an artist. The transformation and influence that he had brought about in the entertainment industry, dance included, might very well be the greatest legacy that any solo artist had ever left behind. Michael Jackson, as great a dancer as he was, had surprisingly no formal dance training throughout his career. He was completely self-taught and worked very much in isolation when it came to perfecting many of his famous dance moves (Beers). He had a strong ability as a child to absorb and imitate what he saw quickly. Lacking a formal education, as Michael went around performing, he learnt by watching. Michael Jackson said that the greatest education in the world is watching the masters at work and that was what he did, making the best of his circumstances as a child. He was a perfectionist in many aspects, including dance, spending hours refining his steps and moves till they were flawless before they were presented on stage. Michael Jacksons dance style was influenced by a wide range of people and styles, from RB artists to ballerinas, from jazz to street dances and African-American indigenous styles. He was creative in the way he brought different techniques of various dance forms together, taking whatever he saw and liked in other dances and making them his own (Roy). Eventually, the dance style that became uniquely his spanned a wide range dynamically, from fluid, smooth dance movements to sharp, angular and accented ones. His smooth dance style was visually appealing in that his movements were so connected they just seemed to flow from one to another. At the same time, his signature movements, such as the moonwalk, posed a sense of mystery to the audience as to how it could be done, especially since he seemed to be able to do it so effortlessly. What made the moonwalk so intriguing was that walking, which we are all so familiar with, lifting one foot and putting it in front of the other, could in fac t be done without lifting a foot off the ground at all. Perhaps it was the desire of uncovering the mystery and mastery of his steps that sparked off so much interest in learning them. At the opposite end of the spectrum was his strong accented style of dancing, like that of the robot dance. The movements were a lot less connected and much more punctuated. His accented style of dancing involved intricate bodywork and precise isolation. Even with such a range of movements in his dance vocabulary, there was a certain consistency in his dance style: visual appeal. Though many of his movements and lines were angular and not exactly beautiful and sophisticated like ballet was deemed, there was something about them that was captivating. Despite the seeming simplicity in some of his movements, there was a certain groove and swing in his steps, emphasized by his music that made him such an amazing performer. As a result of his talent in both music and dance, his music and dance style complemented each other to bring out the uniqueness of his style that made him stand out as an artist of his time. Michael Jackson was born with a talented and creative mind. His creation of dance movement was closely intertwined with his creation of music. In his movement creation, he not only goes with the music, in some cases, he goes against the music as well, giving diversity to the fusion of music and dance. He varies his movements and music in terms of rhythm, for example syncopations, or differing emphasis in music and movements. For example, he chooses to do many short and sharp movements during the silence in the music. His accented movements are usually done along with the bass beat of the drums in his music but sometimes, he chooses to leave out certain accents and hit only some of them. On the other hand, sometimes when there are many accents in his music, he chooses to do the opposite with his movements, changing to the smooth style of his dance rather than the accented style. His choreography also catered very aptly to the lyrics and content of his songs, exemplified by the movemen ts that likened to zombies choreographed for the song Thriller. This is an example of versatility in his choreography to suit his music and probably was an added factor to success. Such an integration of choreographic movements and music allows the essence of Michael Jacksons style, both in music and dance, to stand out and complement one another at the same time. Another element that he incorporated into his music and dance was the element of theatre or drama. In his music videos, he combined song, dance and drama together such that many of his music videos had storylines, almost like a miniature movie or musical, as in Smooth Criminal. If it was a live concert, he used over-the-top costuming, massive visual elements and even incorporated acrobatic stunts such as having aerialists in his performances. All these were technically complicated and required much technical support (Jackson). As an artist, Michael Jackson strived for perfection by always pushing the limit of complexity and intricacy in what he did and produced. He worked and created with the aim of wanting his audience to feel a sense of awe and wonder watching his works, live or on film. One of the moves he was best known for, the anti-gravitational lean, was one of the stunt that achieved that aim and was evidence of his strive in his artistry. The uniqueness of his works was in t he perfection he desired in every aspect of his art form, music, theatre, dance and acrobatic elements. Michael Jacksons approach to dance was a relatively holistic one, he incorporated various diverse elements to enhance the effect of his dance. His career, being a singer, songwriter, dancer and actor, created the platform for him to develop dance, not as an isolated entity but as part of a larger picture that included music, drama and other visual elements. Its Relation and Impact on Dance Michael Jackson was one of the pioneers who paved the way for dance on film, introducing the commercialization of dance in the later part of the twentieth century. Though dance had already existed in other films such as West Side Story and Singin in the Rain, Michael Jacksons music videos markedly pushed dance in film to the next level through the exploration of camera movement and video-editing skills in the developing computer age (Genne 140), along with his extensive use of props, over-the-top costumes and sets as well as dramatic effects. Before Michael Jacksons music videos, camera movements were limited to a planar view and kept mostly to one level. Michael Jacksons videos introduced a 3-dimensional view with varying camera movement, along with explorations of different levels. In some of Michael Jacksons videos, some of the screenshots were pulled as high as a few storeys. The video-editing skills required to produce the dramatic effects that his music videos had were also con siderably phenomenal, when put in contrast to what had been produced in the past. These progresses enabled audiences to see a fuller picture of dance on film as it was now less 2-dimensional and somewhat closer to seeing it in real-life. With the social and political climate of America at that time, street dance had become popular as a form of self-expression. America was still experiencing the aftermath of World War II and undergoing social changes. Advances in civil rights were taking place and African-Americans began to rise in society as the number of black members in Congress increased. Street dance was generally associated with the African-Americans and was an expression of the freedom from discrimination that they were slowly experiencing. Such dances began to appear on film, taking dance beyond the studios and even beyond the streets. As Michael Jacksons works gained popularity, his music videos added new dimension and development to the existing dance on films as he was an African-American himself and represented not only the rising of the African-American population but also the coming of a new genre of dance on film, street dance or what is now called hip-hop. In many of Michael Jacksons dances, he incorporated strong elements of popping and locking, as well as isolation techniques. These have very strong influences on the hip hop genre of dance that we know of today. At that time, when Michael Jackson first commercialized the technique of popping and locking, it was coined the term robot dance and was very popular amongst the audience. The unveiling of Michael Jacksons robot dance gave new vocabulary to street dance, which eventually gave rise to hip-hop. Hip-hop today has opened up into several different genres such as popping and locking, and break-dancing, all of which still have tinges of Michael Jacksons influence visible in their styles. Michaels success as a musician and singer attributed to his worldwide influence.. The style of his dance complemented his songs so well that these two elements came together as a package for Michael Jackson as he built his image as an artist. This was possible due to his success in commercializing his music videos which included the aspect of dance. His works were so well-received globally and many sought to imitate what Michael Jackson was capable of doing. His works tug at the heartstrings of audiences and convey Michael Jacksons emotions genuinely through his songs and dance. Moreover, through his years of experience, he recognized what audiences wanted through a performance. They (referring to the audience) just want wonderful experiences, they want escapism. We want to take them to places theyve never been before, we want to show them talent like theyve never seen before. says Michael Jackson. He realized what his audience wanted and sought to deliver exactly that, setting him a part from the other artists of his time.
Wednesday, November 13, 2019
Latin America Distinguishing cultures from one another has become increasingly difficult as various societies continue to intertwine and share their aspects of popular life. Constant exposure to US and other world cultures has changed the cultures of Latin American countries somewhat, but much of society remains unchanged. Moving to the United States from Latin America alters life a great deal, and keeping touch with oneÃ¢â¬â¢s original culture may sometimes seem unimportant or simply impossible, but those who remain Latino instead of becoming Ã¢â¬Å"AmericanizedÃ¢â¬ are those who care the most for and have the strongest tie to the culture. Because the United States has long been involved in Latin-American affairs, Ã¢â¬Å"AmericanÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"Latin AmericanÃ¢â¬ culture may not be two completely separate entities. Through foreign policy, economics, politics, and tradeÃ¢â¬âto name a fewÃ¢â¬âUS influence has been woven into the cultures of many countries. And the US doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t only impact the really serious aspects of life. As the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s largest exporter of music, movies, and television programming, the United States constantly bombards other countries with its media, most of which is in English. But interaction between the US and Latin America has by no means wiped out Latin American culture. Using sports as a cultural indicator, Latin America has maintained its identity as a fÃ ºtbol dominated continent, rather than showing a preference for football. Interestingly enough, Ã¢â¬Å"AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢sÃ¢â¬ favorite pastimeÃ¢â¬âbaseballÃ¢â¬âis continually gaining popularity across the American continent, clearly thriving in the United States but also in Latin American countries, where many of the players are from. Other cultural differences include: the common practice among middle- and up... ...her than a stark black-white contrast. Though the United States has managed to inject its culture into countries around the world, it has not completely taken over. Retaining oneÃ¢â¬â¢s Latino identity in a country like the United States can prove somewhat challenging, but if the desire to do so exists, so does the potential. Language is a strong tie to the culture for obvious reasons, but personal experiences may establish an even deeper determination to preserve the culture. Luckily, the United States and Latino cultures arenÃ¢â¬â¢t mutually exclusive, so itÃ¢â¬â¢s not necessary to reject the United States in order to maintain oneÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Latino-ness.Ã¢â¬ Instead, bask in your diversity and indulge in a guilty pleasure, Latino-style; listen to an old Menudo CD, watch a telenovela, enjoy some arroz con pollo or flan, or just stay up to all hours of the night to watch a good game of fÃ ºtbol.
Sunday, November 10, 2019
In the old chapter 2, we discussed approximately aggregative claims and how it can be modelled and simulated utilizing R scheduling. In this chapter we shall discourse on one of the of import factors which has direct impact on arise of a claim, the human mortality. Life insurance companies use this factor to pattern hazard originating out of claims. We shall analyze and look into the petroleum informations presented in human mortality database for specific states like Scotland and Sweden and utilize statistical techniques. Mortality smooth bundle is used in smoothing the informations based on Bayesian information standard BIC, a technique used to find smoothing parameter ; we shall besides plot the information. Finally we shall reason by executing comparing of mortality of two states based on clip.3.1 IntroductionMortality informations in simple footings is entering of deceases of species defined in a specific set. This aggregation of informations could change based on different vari ables or sets such as sex, age, old ages, geographical location and existences. In this subdivision we shall utilize human informations grouped based on population of states, sex, ages and old ages. Human mortality in urban states has improved significantly over the past few centuries. This has attributed mostly due to improved criterion of life and national wellness services to the populace, but in latter decennaries there has been enormous betterment in wellness attention in recent steps which has made strong demographic and actuarial deductions. Here we use human mortality informations and analyse mortality tendency compute life tabular arraies and monetary value different rente merchandises.3.2 Beginnings of DatasHuman mortality database ( HMD ) is used to pull out informations related to deceases and exposure. These informations are collected from national statistical offices. In this thesis we shall look into two states Sweden and Scotland informations for specific ages and ol d ages. The information for specific states Sweden and Scotland are downloaded. The deceases and exposure informations is downloaded from HMD under Sverige Scotland They are downloaded and saved as Ã¢â¬Å" .txt Ã¢â¬ informations files in the several difficult disc under Ã¢â¬Å" /Data/Conutryname_deaths.txt Ã¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å" /Data/Conutryname_exposures.txt Ã¢â¬ severally. In general the information handiness and formats vary over states and clip. The female and male decease and exposure informations are shared from natural informations. The Ã¢â¬Å" entire Ã¢â¬ column in the information beginning is calculated utilizing leaden norm based on the comparative size of the two groups male and female at a given clip.3.3 Gompertz jurisprudence graduationA well-known statistician, Benjamin Gompertz observed that over a long period of human life clip, the force of mortality additions geometrically with age. This was modelled for individual twelvemonth of life. The Gompertz theoretical account is additive on the log graduated table. The Gompertz jurisprudence states that Ã¢â¬Å" the mortality rate additions in a geometric patterned advance Ã¢â¬ . Therefore when decease rates are A & gt ; 0 B & gt ; 1 And the line drive theoretical account is fitted by taking log both sides. = a + bx Where a = and B = The corresponding quadratic theoretical account is given as follows3.3.1 Generalized Linear theoretical accounts are P-Splines in smoothing informationsGeneralized Linear Models ( GLM ) are an extension of the additive theoretical accounts that allows theoretical accounts to be fit to data that follow chance distributions like Poisson, Binomial, and etc. If is the figure of deceases at age ten and is cardinal exposed to put on the line so By maximal likelihood estimation we have and by GLM, follows Poisson distribution denoted by with a + bx We shall utilize P-splines techniques in smoothing the information. As mentioned above the GLM with figure of deceases follows Poisson distribution, we fit a quadratic arrested development utilizing exposure as the beginning parametric quantity. The splines are piecewise multinomials normally cubic and they are joined utilizing the belongings of 2nd derived functions being equal at those points, these articulations are defined as knots to suit informations. It uses B-splines arrested development matrix. A punishment map of order linear or quadratic or three-dimensional is used to punish the irregular behavior of informations by puting a punishment difference. This map is so used in the log likeliness along with smoothing parametric quantity.The equations are maximised to obtain smoothing informations. Larger the value of implies smoother is the map but more aberrance. Therefore, optimum value of is chosen to equilibrate aberrance and theoretical account complexness. is evaluated utilizing assorted techniques such as BIC Ã¢â¬â Bayesian information standard and AIC Ã¢â¬â Akaike Ã¢â¬Ës information standard techniques. Mortalitysmooth bundle in R implements the techniques mentioned above in smoothing informations, There are different options or picks to smoothen utilizing p-splines, The figure of knots ndx, the grade of p-spine whether additive, quadratic or three-dimensional bdeg and the smoothning parametric quantity lamda. The mortality smooth methods fits a P-spline theoretical account with equally-spaced B-splines along ten There are four possible methods in this bundle to smooth informations, the default value being set is BIC. AIC minimisation is besides available but BIC provides better result for big values. In this thesis, we shall smoothen the informations utilizing default option BIC and utilizing lamda value.3.4 MortalitySmooth Package in R plan executionIn this subdivision we describe the generic execution of utilizing R programming to read deceases and exposure informations from human mortality database and usage MortalitySmooth bundle to smoothen the informations based on p-splines. The undermentioned codification presented below tonss the & gt ; require ( Ã¢â¬Å" MortalitySmooth Ã¢â¬ ) & gt ; beginning ( Ã¢â¬Å" Programs/Graduation_Methods.r Ã¢â¬ ) & gt ; Age & lt ; -30:80 ; Year & lt ; Ã¢â¬â 1959:1999 & gt ; state & lt ; Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬ Scotland Ã¢â¬ ; Sex & lt ; Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Å" Males Ã¢â¬ & gt ; decease =LoadHMDData ( state, Age, Year, Ã¢â¬ Deaths Ã¢â¬ , Sex ) & gt ; exposure =LoadHMDData ( state, Age, Year, Ã¢â¬ Exposures Ã¢â¬ , Sex ) & gt ; FilParam.Val & lt ; -40 & gt ; Hmd.SmoothData =SmoothenHMDDataset ( Age, Year, decease, exposure ) & gt ; XAxis & lt ; Ã¢â¬â Year & gt ; YAxis & lt ; -log ( fitted ( Hmd.SmoothData $ Smoothfit.BIC ) [ Age==FilParam.Val, ] /exposure [ Age==FilParam.Val, ] ) & gt ; plotHMDDataset ( XAxis, log ( decease [ Age==FilParam.Val, ] /exposure [ Age==FilParam.Val, ] ) , MainDesc, Xlab, Ylab, legend.loc ) & gt ; DrawlineHMDDataset ( XAxis, YAxis ) The MortalitySmooth bundle is loaded and the generic execution of methods to put to death graduation smoothening is available in Programs/Graduation_Methods.r. The measure by measure description of the codification is explained below.Step:1 Load Human Mortality informationMethod NameLoadHMDDataDescriptionReturn an object of Matrix type which is a mxn dimension with m stand foring figure of Ages and n stand foring figure of old ages. This object is specifically formatted to be used in Mortality2Dsmooth map.ExecutionLoadHMDData ( Country, Age, Year, Type, Sex )ArgumentsCountry Name of the state for which information to be loaded. If state is Ã¢â¬Å" Denmark Ã¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬ Sweden Ã¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬ Switzerland Ã¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å" Japan Ã¢â¬ the SelectHMDData map of MortalitySmooth bundle is called internally. Age Vector for the figure of rows defined in the matrix object. There must be atleast one value. Year Vector for the figure of columns defined in the matrix object. There must be atleast one value. Type A value which specifies the type of informations to be loaded from Human mortality database. It can take values as Ã¢â¬Å" Deaths Ã¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å" Exposures Ã¢â¬ Sexual activity An optional filter value based on which information is loaded into the matrix object. It can take values Ã¢â¬Å" Males Ã¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å" Females Ã¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å" Entire Ã¢â¬ . Default value being Ã¢â¬Å" Entire Ã¢â¬ DetailssThe method LoadHMDData in Ã¢â¬Å" Programs/Graduation_Methods.r Ã¢â¬ reads the informations availale in the directory Data to lade deceases or exposure for the given parametric quantities. The informations can be filtered based on Country, Age, Year, Type based on Deaths or Exposures and in conclusion by Sexual activity.Figure: 3.1 Format of matrix objects Death and Exposure.The Figure 3.1 shows the format used in objects Death and Exposure to hive away informations. A matrix object stand foring Age in rows and Old ages in column. The MortalitySmooth bundle contains certain characteristics for specific states listed in the bundle. They are Denmark, Switzerland, Sweden and Japan. These informations for these states can be straight accessed by a predefined map SelectHMDData. LoadHMDData map checks the value of the variable state and if Country is equal to any of the 4 states mentioned in the mortalitysmooth bundle so SelectHMDData method is internally called or else customized generic map is called to return the objects. The return objects format in both maps remains precisely the same.Measure 2: Smoothen HMD DatasetMethod NameSmoothenHMDDatasetDescriptionReturn a list of smoothened object based BIC and Lamda of matrix object type which is a mxn dimension with m stand foring figure of Ages and n stand foring figure of old ages. This object is specifically formatted to be used in Mortality2Dsmooth map. Tax returns a list of objects of type Mort2Dsmooth which is a planar P-splines smooth of the input informations and order fixed to be default. These objects are customized for mortality informations merely. Smoothfit.BIC and Smoothfit.fitLAM objects are returned along with fitBIC.Data fitted values. SmoothenHMDDataset ( Xaxis, YAxis, ZAxis, Offset.Param )ArgumentsXaxis Vector for the abscissa of informations used in the map Mortality2Dsmooth in MortalitySmooth bundle in R. Here Age vector is value of XAxis. Yaxis Vector for the ordinate of informations used in the map Mortality2Dsmooth in MortalitySmooth bundle in R. Here Year vector is value of YAxis. .ZAxis Matrix Count response used in the map Mortality2Dsmooth in MortalitySmooth bundle in R. Here Death is the matrix object value for ZAxis and dimensions of ZAxis must match to the length of XAxis and YAxis. Offset.Param A Matrix with anterior known values to be included in the additive forecaster during suiting the 2d informations. Here exposure is the matrix object value and is the additive forecaster.Detailss.The method SmoothenHMDDataset in Ã¢â¬Å" Programs/Graduation_Methods.r Ã¢â¬ smoothens the informations based on the decease and exposure objects loaded as defined above in measure 1. The Age, twelvemonth and decease are loaded as x-axis, y-axis and z-axis severally with exposure as the beginning parametric quantity. These parametric quantities are internally fitted in Mortality2Dsmooth map available in MortalitySmooth bundle in smoothing the information.Step3: secret plan the smoothened informations based on user inputMethod NamePlotHMDDatasetDescriptionPlot the smoothed object with the several axis, fable, axis graduated table inside informations are machine rifles customized based on user inputs.ExecutionPlotHMDDataset ( Xaxis, YAxis, MainDesc, Xlab, Ylab, legend.loc, legend.Val, Plot.Type, Ylim )ArgumentsXaxis Vector for plotting X axis value. Here the value would be Age or Year based on user petition. Yaxis Vector for plotting X axis value. Here the value would be Smoothened log mortality valleies filtered for a peculiar Age or Year. MainDesc Main inside informations depicting about the secret plan. Xlab X axis label. Ylab Y axis label. legend.loc A customized location of fable. It can take values Ã¢â¬Å" topright Ã¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬ topleft Ã¢â¬ legend.Val A customized fable description inside informations Ã¢â¬â it can take vector values of type twine. Val, Plot.Type An optional value to alter secret plan type. Here default value is equal to default value set in the secret plan. If value =1, so figure with line is plotted Ylim An optional value to put the tallness of the Y axis, by default takes max value of vector Y values.DetailssThe generic method PlotHMDDataset in Ã¢â¬Å" Programs/Graduation_Methods.r Ã¢â¬ plots the smoothed fitted mortality values with an option to custom-make based on user inputs. The generic method DrawlineHMDDataset in Ã¢â¬Å" Programs/Graduation_Methods.r Ã¢â¬ plots the line. Normally called after PlotHMDDataset method.3.5 Graphic representation of smoothened mortality informations.In this subdivision we shall look into graphical representation of mortality informations for selected states Scotland and Sweden. The generic plan discussed in old subdivision 3.4 is used to implement the secret plan based on customized user inputs. Log mortality of smoothed informations v.s existent tantrum for Sweden. Figure 3.3 Left panel: Ã¢â¬â Plot of Year v.s log ( Mortality ) for Sweden based on age 40 and twelvemonth from 1945 to 2005. The points represent existent informations and ruddy and bluish curves represent smoothed fitted curves for BIC and Lamda =10000 severally. Right panel: Ã¢â¬â Plot of Age v.s log ( Mortality ) for Sweden based on twelvemonth 1995 and age from 30 to 90. The points represent existent informations red and bluish curves represent smoothed fitted curves for BIC and Lamda =10000 severally. Log mortality of smoothed informations v.s existent tantrum for Scotland Figure 3.4 Left panel: Ã¢â¬â Plot of Year v.s log ( Mortality ) for Scotland based on age 40 and twelvemonth from 1945 to 2005. The points represent existent informations and ruddy and bluish curves represent smoothed fitted curves for BIC and Lamda =10000 severally. Right panel: Ã¢â¬â Plot of Age v.s log ( Mortality ) for Scotland based on twelvemonth 1995 and age from 30 to 90. The points represent existent informations red and bluish curves represent smoothed fitted curves for BIC and Lamda =10000 severally. Log mortality of Females Vs Males for Sweden The Figure 3.5 given below represents the mortality rate for males and females in Sweden for age wise and twelvemonth wise. 3.5 Left panel reveals that the mortality of male is more than the female over the old ages and has been a sudden addition of male mortality from mid 1960 Ã¢â¬Ës boulder clay late 1970 Ã¢â¬Ës for male Ã¢â¬â The life anticipation for Sweden male in 1960 is 71.24 V 74.92 for adult females and it had been increasing for adult females to 77.06 and merely 72.2 for male in the following decennary which explains the tendency. Figure 3.5 Left panel: Ã¢â¬â Plot of Year v.s log ( Mortality ) for Sweden based on age 40 and twelvemonth from 1945 to 2005. The ruddy and bluish points represent existent informations for males and females severally and ruddy and bluish curves represent smoothed fitted curves for BIC males and females severally. Right panel: Ã¢â¬â Plot of Age v.s log ( Mortality ) for Sweden based on twelvemonth 2000 and age from 25 to 90. The ruddy and bluish points represent existent informations for males and females severally and ruddy and bluish curves represent smoothed fitted curves for BIC males and females severally. The Figure 3.5 represents the mortality rate for males and females in Sweden for age wise and twelvemonth wise. 3.5 Left panel reveals that the mortality of male is more than the female over the old ages and has been a sudden addition of male mortality from mid 1960 Ã¢â¬Ës boulder clay late 1970 Ã¢â¬Ës for male Ã¢â¬â The life anticipation for Sweden male in 1960 is 71.24 V 74.92 for adult females and it had been increasing for adult females to 77.06 and merely 72.2 for male in the following decennary which explains the tendency. The 3.5 Right panel shows the male mortality is more than the female mortality for the twelvemonth 1995, The sex ratio for male to female is 1.06 at birth and has been systematically diminishing to 1.03 during 15-64 and.79 over 65 and above clearly explicating the tendency for Sweden mortality rate addition in males is more than in females. Log mortality of Females Vs Males for Scotland Figure 3.6 Left panel: Ã¢â¬â Plot of Year v.s log ( Mortality ) for Scotland based on age 40 and twelvemonth from 1945 to 2005. The ruddy and bluish points represent existent informations for males and females severally and ruddy and bluish curves represent smoothed fitted curves for BIC males and females severally. Right panel: Ã¢â¬â Plot of Age v.s log ( Mortality ) for Scotland based on twelvemonth 2000 and age from 25 to 90. The ruddy and bluish points represent existent informations for males and females severally and ruddy and bluish curves represent smoothed fitted curves for BIC males and females severally. The figure 3.6 Left panel describes consistent dip in mortality rates but there has been a steady addition in mortality rates of male over female for a long period get downing mid 1950 Ã¢â¬Ës and has been steadily increasing for people of age 40 years.The 3.6 Right panel shows the male mortality is more than the female mortality for the twelvemonth 1995, The sex ratio for male to female is 1.04 at birth and has been systematically diminishing to.94 during 15-64 and.88 over 65 and above clearly explicating the tendency for Scotland mortality rate addition in males is more than in females. hypertext transfer protocol: //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Demography_of_Scotland.Log mortality of Scotland Vs Sweden Figure 3.7 Left panel: Ã¢â¬â Plot of Year v.s log ( Mortality ) for states Sweden and Scotland based on age 40 and twelvemonth from 1945 to 2005. The ruddy and bluish points represent existent informations for Sweden and Scotland severally and ruddy and bluish curves represent smoothed fitted curves for BIC Sweden and Scotland severally. Right panel: Ã¢â¬â Plot of Year v.s log ( Mortality ) for states Sweden and Scotland based on twelvemonth 2000 and age from 25 to 90. The ruddy and bluish points represent existent informations for Sweden and Scotland severally and ruddy and bluish curves represent smoothed fitted curves for BIC Sweden and Scotland severally. The figure 3.7 Left Panel shows that the mortality rates for Scotland are more than Sweden and there has been consistent lessening in mortality rates for Sweden get downing mid 1970 Ã¢â¬Ës where as Scotland mortality rates though decreased for a period started to demo upward tendency, this could be attributed due to alter in life conditions.
Friday, November 8, 2019
Characteristics of Romanticism in the History of Art. essays Characteristics of Romanticism in the History of Art. To characterise Romanticism within the fine arts one must consider the historical background from which this movement manifested, as it plays such an influential role in the Romantic artist's development of subject matter and style. The movement itself began around the beginning of the 19th century, and is often dated 1775 1830 it is important to note that this was a period of change and revolution in human rights, and the main countries this movement manifested in were Germany, Britain and in France during the French Revolution of 1789. This political and cultural revolution had a major affect on all of the arts as well as the visual arts; as artists began to revolt against Neo-Classical and academic traditions and look inwards into their own experience and imagination. Imagination is one of the most prominent themes in the Romantic Movement as artists began to direct their attention towards subjects other than the rigid definitions of genres within the academic world of pain ting, and also to the simplicity of the Medieval artists. Instead, artists turned to literature (especially poetry), political and historical events as well as individual and imaginative styles of depicting this subject matter. This essay will aim to highlight and describe the manifestation of these themes, within this period, through the observation of the artist's work that is linked to the Movement. The artists of the Romantic Movement, as suggested, no longer wanted to be constrained to the proscribed theories and practices of the Academies; who thought that everything that needed to be learned could be done so by observing the Roman Masters, and wished to create their own imaginative responses equalizing them with the authors and poets of the Romantic Literary Movement. One form of imaginative response, which manifested in this change of thinking about the visual arts, was the way in...
Wednesday, November 6, 2019
Roy Plunkett and the Invention of Teflon Dr. Roy Plunkett discovered PTFE or polytetrafluoroethylene, the basis of TeflonÃ ®, in April 1938. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s one of those discoveries that happened by accident. Plunkett Discovers PTFE Plunkett held a Bachelor of Arts degree, a Master of Science degree, and his PhD in organic chemistry when he went to work at the DuPont research laboratories in Edison, New Jersey. HeÃ was working with gases related to FreonÃ ®Ã refrigerants when he stumbled upon PTFE. Plunkett and his assistant, Jack Rebok, were charged with developing an alternative refrigerant and came up with tetrafluorethylene or TFE. They ended up making about 100 pounds of TFE and were faced with the dilemma of storing it all. They placed the TFE in small cylinders and froze them.Ã When they later checked on the refrigerant, they found the cylinders effectively empty, even though they felt heavy enough that they should still have been full. They cut one open and found that the TFE had polymerized into a white, waxy powder polytetrafluoroethylene or PTFE resin. Plunkett was an inveterate scientist. He had this new substance on his hands, but what to do with it? It was slippery, chemically stable and had a high melting point. He began playing with it, attempting to find out if it would serve any useful purpose at all. Ultimately, the challenge was taken out of his hands when he was promoted and sent to a different division. The TFE was sent to DuPontÃ¢â¬â¢s Central Research Department. The scientists there were instructed to experiment with the substance, and TeflonÃ ® was born. Teflon Properties The molecular weight of TeflonÃ ® can exceed 30 million, making it one of the largest molecules known to man. A colorless, odorless powder, it is a fluoroplastic with many properties thatÃ give it an increasingly wide range of uses. The surface is so slippery, virtually nothing sticks to it or is absorbed by it Ã¢â¬â the Guinness Book of World Records once listed it as the slipperiest substance on earth. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s still the only known substance that a geckos feet cant stick to.Ã The Teflon Trademark PTFE was first marketed under the DuPont TeflonÃ ® trademark in 1945. Ã No wonder TeflonÃ ® was chosen to be used on non-stick cooking pans, but it was originally used only for industrial and military purposes because it was so expensive to make. The first non-stick pan usingÃ TeflonÃ ® was marketed in France as Tefal in 1954. The U.S. followed with its own TeflonÃ ®-coated pan the Happy Pan in 1861. Teflon Today TeflonÃ ® can be found just about everywhere these days: as a stain repellant in fabrics, carpets and furniture, in automobile windshield wipers, hair products, lightbulbs, eyeglasses, electrical wires and infrared decoy flares. As for those cooking pans, feel free to take a wire whisk or any other utensil to them Ã¢â¬â unlike in the old days, you wonÃ¢â¬â¢t risk scratching the TeflonÃ ® coating because its been improved. . Dr. Plunkett stayed with DuPont until his retirement in 1975. He died in 1994, but not before being inducted into the Plastics Hall of Fame and the National InventorsÃ¢â¬â¢ Hall of Fame.
Monday, November 4, 2019
Comparison of the Figure of Achilles with Odysseus and Gilgamesh - Research Paper Example In EdelÃ¢â¬â¢s view, the definition of self-sufficiency cannot be limited with a mere reference to the 'self' of a man. It also involves the society in which he lives that comprises his parents, children, wife, friends and fellow citizens, "since man is by nature a social and political being" (Johnston par. 8). This paper is an attempt to compare and analyze the heroic figures Achilles and Odysseus, in the light of AristotleÃ¢â¬â¢s statement. The thesis statement of this paper is that Achilles is a self-sufficient god-like figure, when compared to Odysseus, who constantly fights to reach his homeland and reclaim his family and home. Homer is the author of the 'Iliad' and the 'Odyssey', the two major Greek epic poems that form a significant part of ancient history and classic literature. The Iliad deals with the incidents that take place in the tenth year of the Trojan War, with special emphasis to the famous Greek warrior Achilles.Odyssey, on the other hand, deals with the return of Odysseus, the King of Ithaca, in post-Trojan War. Achilles and Odysseus are considered as the greatest Achaean heroes of Trojan War. Odysseus is a great leader, orator, and tactician; whereas Achilles is a daring warrior, who is proud of his abilities. Homer does not portray Achilles and Odysseus in generic human forms. His heroes are men who are warriors, consistently indulging in activities that require unique traits and qualities, beyond the deeds of normal human forms. Homer portrays Achilles and Odysseus as men possessing different distinguishing qualities that make them absolutely fit for the ancient Greek notion of 'heroes'. According to Lash, a hero possesses "a consistent capacity for action that surpasses the norm of man or woman" (Lash 5). Lash also states that a hero is not superior to human norms. A man is defined 'hero' with regard to his Ã¢â¬Å"traits and unique style of action [that]mark him as having 'arete', excellence. In excelling and exceeding himself, the h ero becomes a model of higher potential for his clan, his race, his nation, and even for humanity at large" (Lash 5). HomerÃ¢â¬â¢s heroes are therefore males of exceptional abilities, with a great potential to excel a range of activities, and in doing so, become a source of inspiration to others. Achilles, the son of Peleus and Nereid Thetis, is a mighty warrior with god-like rage, which is uncommon among human forms. Homer mentions Achilles as god-like many a times and attributes the appearance of a God to him. Achilles is a self-sufficient man, as explained by Aristotle, except for his need for women. He is aware of his destiny that the city of Troy cannot be taken without his help, as prophesied by the seer Calchas. Achilles also knows that he is destined to die in the Trojan War. When Agamemnon offers material benefits for his participation in the Trojan War, Achilles replies that his life is more worth than these benefits. The sole aim of Achilles is to become an excellent wa rrior. He prefers death to dishonor, and yearns for a glorious death in the battlefield. When Agamemnon, takes away AchillesÃ¢â¬â¢ war-prize Briseis from him, Achilles turns against Agamemnon and refuses to fight for the Greeks. Achilles of The Iliad, on the other hand, is an archetypal hero who is in charge of the Myrmidons. He becomes arrogant and selfish, and turns against Greek forces. He asks Thetis to plead with Zeus, to bring failure to the Greeks, so that Agamemnon would realize his value. When Briseis is returned to Achilles, he with draws from fighting. Later, he is filled with rage, when Hector kills Patroclus, his friend, who fights in his place. Achilles returns to the fight and kills Hector. In rage, he desecrates the body of
Friday, November 1, 2019
Leadership in the Globalised Firms - Research Paper Example The research paper "Leadership in the Globalised Firms" discusses different types of internal and external challenges of the globalized firms. These threats are reducing the potentials of growth and sustainability in the international market. Leadership is one of the key traits of the managers and administrative level of the firms.There are different types of leadership ethics like the golden rule, stakeholder approach to ethics and four-way test. Being the global leader, I use stakeholders approach in order to maintain a balance between the welfare of both senior management and subordinates. In this scenario, I have to follow the order of senior management as well as I have to answer the query of the employees. I cannot inform the employees regarding the reduction in pending staffing by 10%, as it will harm the motivational level of staff or team members. I will try to react against rumors in a positive manner. In the staff meeting, it is one of the most crucial ethical issues. I wi ll inspire my staff to provide their best contribution and fight to sustain in the firm. It will be a healthy competition, which will enhance the overall performance of the firm. This ethical strategy will help me to maintain my responsibility from both ends. Global leaders are adopting a different type of approaches to managing diversity among their followers and subordinates. The global organizations are facing an intense challenge in terms of maintaining cross cultural diversity and socio economic differentiation among the people.