Monday, September 30, 2019

Qualities of a nurse with a BSN as a Mentor Essay

Qualities of a nurse with a BSN as a Mentor The nurse I chose as a mentor has wonderful qualities that I hope to have after I also obtain a BSN. She shows great communication between nurses, doctors, and families. She is able to explain any situation in a professional manor. Her confidence is shown through her professionalism, for example, when she addresses information of medication and disease process to a family, she explains thoroughly, which builds trust with the family, shows her confidence and accountability, and she takes the time shows care. I know that being a nurse is a stressful job but nurses are able to find emotional stability and this nurse does just that by finding the balance of being happy in one room of a patient who was just extubated and doing well, then she will go to her next patient who isn’t doing as well and have empathy for the family, she says the right things, keeps her own emotions stable and nonjudgmental, and changes her whole thought process room to room. She pays attention to detail by noticing the wrong medication dose before giving to a patient. She has great problem-solving skills by helping residents and doctors come up with solutions in critical situations, she has quick responses with traumas. For example, she noticed something not right with her patient after a certain IV medication was given. She shows respect to all medical staff and families by staying professional, culture sensitive, and always shows a positive attitude. I have observed nurses with ADN and nurses with BSN’s, and I have noticed that BSN nurse show more professionalism in the hospital setting. She believes that nursing is a commitment of service and the desire to help those in need. It is more than treating an illness, she is focused on delivering quality patient care to each patient. Her philosophy of nursing combines the knowledge of medicine with compassion and respect. She has leadership skills that were learned through her education, patients are her number one priority, collaborates with the healthcare team, gives support, sensitive to patient’s needs, and shows praises to other colleagues. She works for the best interest for the patient, such as when she does not agree with an order written for a patient she will question the order and take action when needed. She also shows her leadership skills through forming  leadership meetings on ways to improve employee and patient satisfaction for our unit. She strives to improve areas on our unit that lack strength and finds solutions to make it better. Her attributes are what I am striving for my life long goals as I become a nurse with a BSN. The qualities that I have observed and the influence instilled through this nurse added with the education South University will be teaching me, will help me succeed as a professional nurse with a BSN. Not only will this add to my personal philosophy but also my own personal experiences as a current nurse and my willingness to continually learn, listen, accept advice, respect others beliefs, and work with others in any environment given (adaptability). I look forward to advancing my skill and succeeding as a professional nurse and continuing my education. Chitty, Black, K. (2007). Professional Nursing: Concepts & Challenges (5th ed). W.B. Saunders Company.

Sunday, September 29, 2019

Nutrition in a Toddler’s year Essay

Toddlers grow rapidly, and it is important that they get the best nutrition possible during this time. Their brains develop quickly, and their bodies gain strength to be able to work, run and play. Proper nutrition will help ensure that toddlers will get the best start in life. It is hard enough to get toddlers to sit still for meals let alone keep track of how much they eat, the problem is are toddlers eating enough? And what gives with the days they suddenly eat as though they are wolfing down their last meal? Why the inconsistency? Rest assured that extreme fluctuations in appetites are fairly typical. They do not need to eat as much as they did when they were infants and their appetites reflect that. So while it is important to offer children there regular meals and two or three healthy snacks a day. (Think of it is six mini- meals). In this constantly expanded nutrition essay I will review the important nutrition issues from infant to toddler. How much food do they need? â€Å"Nutrition guide for toddlers† kids’ the Nemours foundation 5 December 2012 http//†¦ The toddler’s transition, especially between 12-24 months, when they are learning to eat table food and accepting new tastes and textures, babies grow at a lightning pace; 3 inches every 3 months. A toddler in contrast, grows at a much slower rate, only 3-5 inches in an entire year. While growth slows somewhat, nutrition remains a top priority. It is also a time for parents to shift gears, leaving bottles behind and moving into a new era where kids will eat and drink independently. Depending on their age, size and activity level, toddlers need about 1000-1400 calories a day. Refer to the chart below to get on idea of how much should be eating and what kinds of food would satisfy the requirements. Trust your own judgment and toddlers cues to tell if he or she is satisfy and getting ade quate nutrition. Nutrition is all about averages, so don’t panics if you  don’t hit every mark every day, just strive to provide a wide variety of nutrients in your child’s diet. For kids between 12 and 24 months, the 2-years –old recommendations can serve as a guide, but during this year toddlers may not be eating this much at least a first, when a range of amounts I given, the higher amount applies to kids who are older, bigger, or more active and need more calories. â€Å"Nutrition to variety† Lucile Packard Children’s Hospital at Stamford, 5 December 2012 Http// This article intended to toddler parents, offer helpful feeding information for toddler (age 1 to 3 years) phase can often be challenging when it comes to feeding. Several developmental changes occur at this time. Toddlers are striving for independence and control, their growth rate slows down and with this comes a decrease in appetite, these changes can make meal structure and set limits for the toddler. The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the U.S Department of Health and Human Services have prepared a food guide for children 2 years and older. The food guide can help parents and child eat a variety of foods while encouraging the right amount of calories and fat. The foods are divided into 5 groups plus oil: * Grain: Consumed each day whole grains food include oatmeal, whole- wheat flour, whole cornmeal, brown rice, and whole wheat bread. * Vegetables: Choose a variety of vegetables, including dark green and orange – colored, kinds, legumes, (peas, and beans) and starchy vegetables. * Fruits: Any fruits or 100 percent fruit juice counts as part of the fruit group. Fruits may be fresh, canned, frozen, or dried, and may be whole, cup – up, or pureed. * Oils: Know the limits on fats, sugar, and salt (sodium) make most of your fat sources from fish, nuts, and vegetables oils. * Milk: Products contain calcium and vitamin D both important ingredients in building and maintaining bone tissue. Use low fat or fat free milk after age two. During the first year of life infants should be fed breast milk or iron- fortified formula. * Meats and beans: Meats and poultry, more fish, nuts, seeds, peas, and beans, can help improve toddlers behavior.

Saturday, September 28, 2019

Integrity in to Kill a Mockingbird Essay

Integrity is having a standard of morals and ethics, and living by them. It is a willingness and ability to do the right thing even when it is hard. The story To Kill a Mockingbird is filled with integrity. For example, many of the people in Maycomb share a prejudiced sense of integrity when it comes to its racist views. However, it is Atticus Finch’s integrity throughout the novel that really embodies the idea of moral and ethical principles. He puts into action every moral idea that he supports. Atticus is a role model to not only his children, but to the whole town of Maycomb, and his integrity is a great part of what makes him such a good example. Integrity breeds integrity. Harper Lee is suggesting that integrity within ourselves helps others to have integrity. Atticus brought up Jem and Scout by example. His show of integrity instilled within his children their own sense of integrity. Both Jem and Scout are exposed to experiences throughout the novel their shape their perception of right and wrong. For example, Atticus took up the case of Tom Robinson not only because he had to, but because he was fighting for an innocent life against injustice and racial prejudice. His display of integrity in Tom Robinson’s case was reflected onto his children. They soon came to know their father as a hero full of moral courage, and did their best to do him right in their own ways. Though they could have fought against their peers insults against them and Atticus, they showed adversity by not reciprocating. â€Å"As it was, we were compelled to hold our heads high and be, respectively, a gentlemen and a lady.†(Lee, pg. 247) Furthermore, Scout shows integrity through her wisdom and compassion that goes beyond her years. Atticus is a strong role model to his children with his strong sense of integrity, and Scout and Jem develop their own integrity throughout To Kill a Mockingbird with his lead. Atticus’s integrity extends not only to his family, but to the whole community of Maycomb. The community of Maycomb was heartedly against Atticus defending Tom Robinson, a black man. Yet, once again, Atticus’s integrity shines through as he stands strong through the adversity. During the trial, Atticus speaks firmly of the truth, and forces Maycomb to examine their conception of race and the equality of man. As Christians, they know that all men were equal. As Atticus finishes his speech, he says â€Å"In the name of god, believe him [Tom Robinson]† (Lee, Pg. 209). In saying this, he is reminding the jury of this integrity they are supposed to uphold. Though Maycomb convicted Tom Robinson, as Miss Maudie said â€Å"We’re making a step-it’s just a baby-step, but it’s a step.† (Lee, Pg.220) She is referring to the fact that Atticus had been able to force the jury to examine their views of race, as they were kept out so long. In this way, Atticus’s integrity got to every person of Maycomb. Another example is when Reverend Sykes says to Scout â€Å"Miss Jean Louise, stand up, your father’s passin’.†(Lee, Pg 215) Reverend Sykes is demonstrating his respect for Atticus by telling Scout to show the same respect. Atticus’s integrity had a strong impact on the black community of Maycomb, and they demonstrated a great deal of their own integrity because of him. Atticus’s integrity reflects onto all of Maycomb county’s citizens. Today’s society can easily relate to the pressures on the individual’s and community’s integrity that is found in the novel To Kill a Mockingbird. Every day peer pressure instils within us the desire to be bigger and better than what we are. The media, how other’s view us, and the pressure put on us by others will all test our integrity on a daily basis. Atticus and his children both had to deal with the adversity against them because of the communities differences in opinion. They kept their integrity through it all with Jem and scout having their father’s moral advice and support to help them. Though many succumb to the pressures put on us, there are also many Atticus’s out there that have a moral and ethical conscience backing them up. They become a role model that breeds integrity through their moral practices. â€Å"Before I can live with other folks I’ve got to live with myself. The one thing that doesn’t abide by majority rule is a person’s conscience.† (Lee, pg.108) To conclude, Atticus is a strong moral figure in the book To Kill a Mockingbird that demonstrates the quality of integrity to the fullest. His integrity helps others to have integrity. To explain, Atticus instils a strong sense of integrity within his children by teaching them by example. Furthermore, his example of integrity also extends to the community of Maycomb, as Atticus forces them to reflect upon their prejudiced racial views. We ourselves are every day tested with our own integrity, and the Atticus’s of the world and in ourselves can help strengthen our moral values. All in all, Integrity within ourselves helps others to have integrity.

Friday, September 27, 2019

Draft of the Baltic Sea in Germany Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Draft of the Baltic Sea in Germany - Essay Example First of all, the mines were constructed on fragile ecosystems and hence endangering the survival of wolverines, ptarmigan and also fishmillion (Boutilier & Black 2013). Secondly, the cultural and social lives of the areas like Ekati have been disrupted. Lastly due to inadequate regulatory frameworks in Canada there is no provision that the long term and environmental effects will be handled but the companies in the long term. Just to take an example of Victor mines, the environmental pollutions include the fact that 100,000 m3of salty water is pumped into river Attawapiskatmillion (Boutilier & Black 2013). Consequently, this leads to endangered aquatic lives. Another risk is that 1.2 million cubic meter of muskeg will be cleared. In addition to that, the Methyl mercury released by dewatering muskeg is potentially risky to the environment. In a different aspect, an estimate of 2.5 million rocks from the mines are dumped anywhere in the environment each yearmillion (Boutilier & Black 2013). Some of the rocks are environmental hazards since some contain dangerous chemicals which are swept into the water reservoirs. Last but not least, the area surrounding the mine is the home of woodland caribou and endangered species. This means that the lives of these animals will be further endanger. In conclusion, it is important for each country to make sure that before activities such as mining are approved, both short and long-term effects should be considered. The exploration in Canada should be an example to other countries in the mining industry. Legitimizing industry and multi-sectorial regulation of cumulative impacts: A comparison of mining and energy development in Athabasca, Canada and the Hunter Valley, Australia. Resources Policy, 38(4),

Thursday, September 26, 2019

Land Law Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words - 1

Land Law - Essay Example This study looks into the law of land as a branch of law that regulates dealings related to land. Land is defined as a physical portion of the earth’s surface and resources that are found above and bellow the surface. The definition of land also extends to rights that are associated with land. This document covers the facts of the case: connor, a landowner decided to sell off part of his land in order to ease his financial strains. He intended to use the income for developing the remaining parts of his land. He sold his farmhouse to Jane on terms that the firm house shall be used as a residential facility for a single family. Similarly, he sold part of the farm to Bullhorn Company on terms that any subsequent owner of the sold part shall develop and maintain a fence, the sold portion shall not be used for more than twelve dwelling houses, and that the property shall strictly be used for residential purposes. Bullhorn developed twelve independent residential units and sold then to different parties on the terms that the owners shall strictly use the property for residential purposes and shall pay a vendor some maintenance fees for upkeep of the roadway. Jane also sold her property to Oscar who has since established a business enterprise within the property. Alex, one of the buyers from Bullhorn has also been using his house as a bail hostel, a commercial initiative. As a result, other house owners have expressed their dissatisfaction and have refused to maintain their fences as well as payments for road upkeep. Legal issues Covenants Covenants are obligations that are derived from agreements between two landowners. While one party incurs obligations, the other party consequently derives a benefit to the covenant. The common objectives for making covenants include restrictions to the use of the pieces of land or prescription of outline to a development plan. A covenant may for instance control the manner in which a person can use his or her piece of land o r even the status of the landowner. Though the general rule imposes rights and liabilities on the original parties to a covenant, th

Techniques for the Biomedical Sciences Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Techniques for the Biomedical Sciences - Essay Example While conducting ELISA tests mild detergents are normally used in washing out the proteins that are not bound to any particular substrate. ELISA has been widely used in pregnancy tests. Chorionic Gonadotrophin is a hormone largely produced by developing placenta during pregnancy. Peptide hormone detection is used in pregnancy tests and many other tests such as abnormally growing cell tumors most importantly the germ cell tumors. Chorionic Gonadotrophin hormone is also useful in man in the determination of cancer of the testicles. 3.A typical graph plotted will assume a sigmoid shape. This is mainly attributed to the wells from column 4 which indicate a yellow color showing positive results. However, there is increased absorption as the concentration increases. Wells that did not contain the serum showed little or no absorbance. For the wells which did not have the substrate indicated the least absorbance. This type of ELISA has been known to require the use antibody pairs which are m atching. In this case, the antibody is first coated in the pate well by an antigen molecule. The next solution known as the analyte is then applied to the well. This is then followed by addition of another antibody layer, which helps in measuring the concentration of the analyte. Capturing and detection of the analyte are possible through the use of polyclonal in sandwich ELISA is variability is allowed. In cases where the enzyme is conjugated to the detecting antibody, the process is known as direct sandwich ELISA. reduce the errors.

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

Economic of race and gender Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Economic of race and gender - Essay Example Question One Emergence of changing gender roles and family in the modern society and women are advancing in their career and taking even more challenging roles at work that were believed to be men oriented. One of the factors that have contributed a lot to the shift to the joint conjugal roles is the mobility with respect to work and career (Kirby, 54). Most of the families with one couple being challenged physically may have the man performing the housework and childcare tasks. This is because those who are disabled may not fully perform these tasks or even go to work hence the other partner will have no choice but to do these duties. However, in certain modern families, there are women going to work while the man remain in the homes to take care of the children and do the housework (Kirby, 55).. By default assumption some family set ups and communities believe that the women are supposed to perform the housework and take care of the children while the men are supposed to work and p rovide; food, shelter and clothing to the family (Blundell & McNeill, 65). Question Two Lack of employment in most developing countries is also a major contributor to the inequalities in the pay. Low economic growth rate accompanied by bad governance is the source of unemployment and low paid jobs in most African countries compared to Europe (Clegg 23). He also argues that there are so many people looking for few jobs and in some cases the jobs are not even there. Corruption which is rooted in these countries also denies the right persons of the opportunities in the public sector thereby leaving most skilled labor. Some of which are exported to other countries which have their own legislative restrictions and therefore they encounter discrimination in those jobs. Question Three Discrimination against the tribes and races also contributes to the differences in the pay even if two different people working in different nations or in the same nation have the same qualifications (Blau & Winkler, 243). It is common to find that international companies which have gone global in terms of their operations do not provide similar work conditions for their employees. You find that a marketing manager for the Coca-Cola Company is paid higher in the United States of America than in South Africa. Even though the differences may be attributed to by the kind of profits that is realized and the size of the market that one has to capture as a manager, the differences are relatively not realistic. The variation in the pay is seen across all the nations across the world. However, there is a pattern for the relatively low pay for women in all the nations. Question Four Family serves as an economic unit since it constitutes members who determine the highest level of satisfaction that they can derive from different activities. The family provides the education and other important services in the process of raising the members of the society. It is therefore noticeable that the family plays an important role in determining the structure of employment in the overall economy. Discrimination in the pay that begins from the family persists in the society. The traditional roles of women and other discrimination with respect to the education of

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

Digital revolutions (6) Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Digital revolutions (6) - Essay Example It has been observed that owing to implementation of advanced technology in the global market has become more effective in nature (Crown, 2015). The principle aim of the study is to describe about the positive impact of adopting digitalisation within the existing marketing process. Apart from this, the study will also describe how digitalisation can be helpful in building effective global marketing strategies. The digital revolution is recognised to be incorporated within the global marketing strategy during the third industrial revolution, which has made a positive impact over the global economic development. The business industry has become more cautious regarding the application of the same. It has been stated that by implementing the digitalisation within marketing strategy companies are more able in developing effective connection with the costumers. It has been also observed that the traditional ways of marketing are unable to create connection with its customers. In this regards the marketing practitioners have become more eager to adopt the digitalisation within their marketing strategies. Therefore, several companies have launched new strategies of handling online marketing segments, which will facilitate the companies to generate more customers as per the needs of the global marketing segments (Breene & Whipple, 2011). In this regard, the creation of electronic commerce industry has become more active participant for the development of new business circle. Most of the marketing practitioners consider e-commerce industry as a popular domain among the mass media as well as informatics circle also. It has been noted that the implication of e-commerce industry are playing an important role for developing the financial services as well as retail industry as well. Correspondingly, it can be stated that the digital revolution in the global business encourages adoption as well as practice of

Monday, September 23, 2019

Marketing Plan Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words

Marketing Plan - Essay Example This essay is aimed at discussing the various aspects of and issues related to marketing plan. In this context, first the role and nature of a marketing plan is discussed. Next, the structure of a standard marketing plan is explained. After that, there are the sections in which elements of marketing plan are elaborated sequentially. The links between marketing plan elements are discussed in the following section. In the section of assumptions, there is a discussion related to the common misconceptions regarding the marketing plan as a whole. Reputable journal, text, and Internet based sources have been used throughout the paper. Role and Nature of Marketing Plan What is a Marketing Plan? A marketing plan is used in backend and management operations. It is aimed at the potential consumers and also the public at large. The complete plan is kept like a guiding document for personnel involved in advertising, sales, and marketing. Marketing plans contain the results obtained by research, which help in identifying tactics and strategies for communicating with the consumers. Hence, it must have an ethical but persuasive orientation. (Solomon et al, 2012; Kang et al, 2002) What is the relationship between a Marketing Plan and a Business Plan? Marketing and business plans have a significant number of elements and subsections in common. In drafting the overall strategic plan, both marketing and business plans may lead to common or overlapping implications. Business plans cover market analyses and marketing research in the context of the whole business including the fiscal affairs. Nevertheless, there are certain differences between a marketing plan and a business plan. Differences between a Marketing Plan and a Business Plan Marketing Plan Business Plan The plan is intended for the potential customers and general public. It is implemented by the personnel involved in sales, advertising, distribution and promotion. (Solomon et al, 2012) Potential investors are shown a bus iness plan as a first step to help them decide whether or not to invest. According to Mason and Stark (2004, p. 227), â€Å"Bankers stress the financial aspects of the proposal and give little emphasis to market, entrepreneur or other issues.† Marketing plan has a customer or consumer oriented persuasive approach (Cravens et al, 2009) Business plan has a financier or investor oriented persuasive approach (Chen et al, 2009) The planner must concentrate more on preparing milestone charts, sales forecasts, marketing research, etc. (Wood, 2011) The planner must refer to the marketing plan but adequately cover the financial information and other details related to the organization. It must be used along with the business plan to draft the strategic plan Business planning is precondition to strategic planning Helps in the processes like â€Å"product line asset development† (Kang et al, 2002, p. 203) Helps in a variety of processes such as management accounting, cash flows, preparing financial statements, etc. Table – 1: Marketing Plan versus Business Plan What are Marketing Plans used for? The marketing plan includes various kinds of analyses to determine marketing strategies like pricing, distribution, and perks that are to be rewarded to the salespeople and retailers who generate better sales for the company. Further, strategic incentives are provided on the basis of market plans. These incentives include different types of offerings, special packages, free gifts, etc. to retain the existing clients and/or attract new clients particularly for service-oriented businesses. In sum, a marketing plan is drafted for achieving sales & distribution targets, winning customers, achieving competitive advantage,

Sunday, September 22, 2019

Identifying the Intertwining Aspects of Free

Identifying the Intertwining Aspects of Freedom Essay To truly comprehend the depth of ones’ determination, a literary character-psychologist must take a step back and realign their perspective with various individualistic and public opinions. In my analysis of Richard Rodriguez’s: Hunger of Memory The Education of Richard Rodriguez and Azar Nafisi’s Reading Lolita in Tehran I shall ponder the intricacies of several major themes associated within these controversial texts. In uncovering the underlying principles, we must first accept that there are intermingling concepts and themes. These themes and concepts are vital to the overall arguments found in each literary work. My analysis shall play a key role in evaluating how each piece plays its own role within the respective work. My diligent analysis shall ultimately focus on: the interweaving significance of self-identity, the essence behind a characters acceptance of public identity, the overwhelming drive to be successful in an ethnocentric society, the challenges associated with overcoming adversity, the complex vitality of ones’ definition of freedom(s), and finally the all-encompassing importance associated with education. My scrutiny of these works shall bring several sources into play in order to support the conclusions being drawn within this paper. Along with two literary works which emphasize the central themes expressed above, I shall be incorporating the movie, iRobot, one magazine article, one newspaper article, a reliable internet source, a singular case study, and lastly a peer interview into the scope of my paper. From the get-go, I shall seek to instill within the reader the acceptance that these themes are both an internalized as well as externalized challenge. We shall be uncovering how these changes affect different individuals on differing emotional, psychological, sociological, and physical levels. Let us proceed with comprehending the significance of how self-identity is formed on the part of our characters and how it affects our perspective of self-freedoms. Self-identity is essentially a private perspective being formed of how one reflects how they see themselves. Per Wikipedia, this self-concept is all about the â€Å"mental and conceptual understanding and persistent regard that sentient beings hold for their own existence† and is key to comprehending who you feel that you truly are on the inside. On the part of Richard Rodriguez, his self-perspective was one of true confusion where his â€Å"words could not stretch far enough to form complete thoughts† and his embarrassment â€Å"to hear (his) parents speak in public (where) their high-whining vowels and guttural consonants† was so unlike â€Å"the way gringos spoke† (14-15). Lost within his own misconceptions of American versus his Mexican immigrate status, he succumbed to being quiet, and timid. In his novel, he reflects that today he hears â€Å"bilingual educators say that children lose a degree of ‘individuality’ by becoming assimilated into public society† but they fail to see that assimilation has its benefits and is a necessity (26). This is because it eventually leads to a public individuality versus the private one; hence, isolation is less prevalent. Feeling secure within the world of books, he delved into reading and acquiring acknowledge as a means to understanding his essence. This tactic was one method of uncovering ones’ self-identity. The old saying that knowledge is power always plays an intricate role within a developing young mind and personality. For Rodriguez, this attainment of knowledge led to a greater comfort level in his sense of freedom. The case study from Economic Mobility of Immigrants in the United States from Economic Mobility Project states that â€Å"†¦second generation immigrants exceed the educational attainment of the first generation†¦(where) education is (considered) one vehicle that immigrants use to help their children get ahead. † This case study indicates that education is a determinant of wages and income in the United States, which Rodriguez had the early foresight to see. The bar graphs presented in this case study show that there is a definite correlation between those without an education from immigrants families and the amount of money they brought in weekly and annually. Because Rodriguez was socially disadvantaged, came from a family without an education, and characterized as lacking linguistic skills, he found himself literally tongue-tied in social environments. Instead he wisely shut himself off from the social world, and uncovered the monumental significance of learning material that children his age perhaps ignored. This level of sophistication created a self-identity tied to sophisticated thoughts and impressions. He indicates that he â€Å"felt that (he) had somehow committed a sin of betrayal by learning English† and though he acknowledges that he â€Å"turned to English with angry reluctance† he felt that his parents â€Å"encouraged (him) to learn English† (30). His social growth was stagnate at first by his overwhelming concern that people did not comprehend his immigrant status, but upon coming to terms with his ethnocentric background and westernization his self-awareness grew by leaps and bounds. As a â€Å"scholarship boy† (62) , he found himself literally memorizing words and phrases presented to students by their teachers. His self-identity became inter-wound with the idea of success, and this was â€Å"his primary reason for success in the classroom†¦(and) that schooling was changing and separating him from the life he enjoyed before becoming a student† (45). His drive for education enabled him to seek out new information and achieve successes that he might otherwise not have sought out. He has had the chance to incorporate his self-identity into an acceptance of his public one. His public identity was fashioned after society saw a well-educated Mexican immigrant who was driven by education and knowledge to pursue his dreams for higher education. Prior, the public had seen immigrants as mainly blue collar works with limited English linguistic skills and considered immigrants to be worthy of only remedial jobs. He reflects that â€Å"dark skin for my mother was the most important symbol of a life of oppressive labor and poverty†¦and the work (his) father found in San Francisco was work for the unskilled. A factory job†¦(where there was)†¦noise and heat.. and the dark stench of old urine† (119-120). These stories from his parents and awareness of blue collar jobs aided Rodriguez in his endeavors to educate himself; thus building a higher level of self-esteem that he otherwise would have lacked considering his preoccupation and concern that he was of immigrant status. His early and youthful withdraw from his family might be considered somewhat of a con, but in fact it showed him that his family in its way supported his desire to be successful and not become part of the blue collar workforce. His assimilation and learning of English lead to â€Å"diminished occasions of intimacy† at home because he â€Å"sensed the deepest truth about language and intimacy: Intimacy is not created by a particular language; it is created by intimacies† where this feeling arose because he used his public language, English, most of the day to move â€Å"easily† through society. (32) Through mature self-awareness he later became aware of the value associated with family and seemingly acknowledges that his family and immigrant background was like a reverse role model-ship. One example of this distance was when his father one day â€Å"opened a closet†¦and was startled to find me inside, reading a novel† (45) which was highly unusual and led to his family joking about what he â€Å"sees in (his) books†. This cultural adversity and mental hardships molded Rodriguez into a man who was ultimately virtuous, highly respected, successful, and knowledgeable. It also encouraged him to intellectually analyze material and find security in learning. This ethnocentric challenge to fit in is not unheard of for first generation children of immigrants. In reality, there are many immigrants from all over the world who come to America seeking to fulfill their hopes and dreams. Some come here under refugee status, some as students, others as H1 workers, and many as illegal immigrants. It is interesting that many have their own story and experience to tell about living in a foreign country. From my driving instructor, Victor Yang, I told that in Saudi Arabia they arrest both the driver and spouse of the driver if they were caught drinking while under the influence. You would think that only the guilty party would be affected, but in this manner the spouse too suffers. Therefore, the husband would probably feel less inclined to commit such a crime again as his loved ones too pay a penalty for violating the law. It might eliminate the freedom of the innocent, but for some it is the psychological and emotional embarrassment suffered by the guilty which limited the violations. I had the opportunity to work with a Muslim refugee from Bosnian who came to America as a teenager, and who was given the hard responsibility of caring for her one-armed mom whose left arm was blown off in the Bosnian marketplace, illiterate father, and young sister. She had to perform all the linguist responsibilities of obtaining paperwork, living space, find a job for her father, enrolling her kid sister in elementary school, running a household, and finally making her way through school. Her determination for education, her drive to live up to her own self-identity, her goals, and her insistence that the family not be on welfare lead to her having a successful job in corporate America. During my many conversations with her, I have heard how difficult it can be to insert your awareness of yourself and goals into a society which covertly favors Americans versus immigrants. Hers too is a story of triumph over adversity. Hers too is the story of many immigrants who faced identity hurdles, but stuck to their determination and knowledge-driven mindset. Her motto is â€Å"Always be self-driven and self-aware. † From my friend’s experiences as immigrant, I found myself curious as an American in uncovering if this â€Å"melting pot† was truly functional or fictional. One newspaper article that I ran into within the Washington Post, â€Å"America’s Racial and Ethnic Divides: Immigrants Shunning Idea of Assimilation† illustrates how a naturalized Mexican does not feel like she is American and she â€Å"resists the idea of assimilating into U. S. society (because she says) ‘I think I’m still Mexican†¦when my skin turns white and my hair turns blonde, then I’ll be an American†. From her external perspective and self-image, like Rodriguez had encountered, she is being differentiated by her skin color. The article points out that â€Å"it is no longer the melting pot that is transforming them, but they who are transforming American society. † Their inputs and idea of freedom and identity enable them to bring new perspectives and ideas into the American society; hence, the melting pot theory is invalid. We might consider it more to be a bowl of chili where every ingredient plays its own role in the end flavor. This ‘segmented assimilation, in which immigrants follow different paths to incorporation in U. S. society’ allows for immigrants to educate themselves and take advantage of opportunities and freedoms that they might not otherwise have. This also enables them to more easily face hurdles and complexities within their public identity. Richard Rodriguez found himself in a more difficult position because of his desire to not be defined as Mexican; which was his own self-identity in question.

Saturday, September 21, 2019

Flip Flop Circuit Explanation and Study

Flip Flop Circuit Explanation and Study A flip-flop is a term referring to an electronic circuit (a bistable multivibrator) that has two stable states and thereby is capable of serving as one bit of memory. Today, the term flip-flop has come to mostly denote non-transparent (clocked or edge-triggered) devices, while the simpler transparent ones are often referred to as latches; however, as this distinction is quite new, the two words are sometimes used interchangeably . A flip-flop is usually controlled by one or two control signals and/or a gate or clock signal. The output often includes the complement as well as the normal output. As flip-flops are implemented electronically, they require power and ground connections. Introduction Basic Flip-Flop Circuit A flip-flop circuit can be constructed from two NAND gates or two NOR gates. Each flip-flop has two outputs, Q and Q, and two inputs, set and reset. This type of flip-flop is referred to as an SR flip-flop or SR latch. The flip-flop in figure has two useful states. When Q=1 and Q=0, it is in the set state (or 1-state). When Q=0 and Q=1, it is in the clear state (or 0-state). The outputs Q and Q are complements of each other and are referred to as the normal and complement outputs, respectively. The binary state of the flip-flop is taken to be the value of the normal output. When a 1 is applied to both the set and reset inputs of the flip-flop in Figure 2, both Q and Q outputs go to 0. This condition violates the fact that both outputs are complements of each other. In normal operation this condition must be avoided by making sure that 1s are not applied to both inputs simultaneously. The NAND basic flip-flop circuit in figure operates with inputs normally at 1 unless the state of the flip-flop has to be changed. A 0 applied momentarily to the set input causes Q to go to 1 and Q to go to 0, putting the flip-flop in the set state. When both inputs go to 0, both outputs go to 1. This condition should be avoided in normal operation. Master-Slave Flip-Flop Introduction A master-slave flip-flop is constructed from two seperate flip-flops. One circuit serves as a master and the other as a slave. The logic diagram of an SR flip-flop is shown in figure.The master flip-flop is enabled on the positive edge of the clock pulse CP and the slave flip-flop is disabled by the inverter. The information at the external R and S inputs is transmitted to the master flip-flop. When the pulse returns to 0, the master flip-flop is disabled and the slave flip-flop is enabled. The slave flip-flop then goes to the same state as the master flip-flop. In addition to these two flip-flops, the circuit also includes an inverter. The inverter is connected to clock pulse in such a way that the inverted CP is given to the slave flip-flop. For example, if the CP=0 for a master flip-flop, then the output of the inverter is 1, and this value is assigned to the slave flip-flop. In other words if CP=0 for a master flip-flop, then CP=1 for a slave flip-flop. A master-slave flip flop can be constructed using any type of flip-flop which forms a combination with a clocked RS flip-flop, and with an inverter as slave circuit. An RS master-slave flip-flop consists of two RS flip-flops; one is the master flip-flop and the other a slave. The inverted CP is given to the slave flip-flop. Now when CP=0, the master flip-flop is disabled. So the external inputs R and S of the master flip-flop will not affect the circuit until CP goes to 1. The inverter output goes to 1 and it enables the slave flip-flop. The output Q=Y and Q=Y. When CP=1, the master flip-flop is enabled and the slave flip-flop remains isolated from the circuit until CP goes back to 0. Now Y and Y depends on the external inputs R and S of the master flip-flop. Assume that the flip-flop is in a clear state and no clock pulse is applied to the circuit. The external inputs given are S=1 and R=0. This input will not affect the state of the system until the CP=1. Now the next clock pulse applied should change the state to SET state (S=1, R=0). During the clock pulse transition from 0 to 1, the master flip-flop goes to set state and changes the output Y to 1. However this does not affect the output of the system since the slave flip-flop is isolated from the system (CP=0 for slave). So no change is observed at the output of the system. When the CP returns to 0, the master flip-flop is disabled while the slave is enabled. So the information from the master is allowed to pass through to the slave. Since Y=1, this changes the output Q to 1. In a master slave flip-flop it is possible to change the output of the flip-flop and the external input with same clock pulse. This is because the external input S can be changed at the same time while the pulse goes through its negative edge transition. When CP=0, change in external input S would not affect the state of the system. From this behavior of the master slave flip-flop it is quite clear that the state change in flip-flops coincide with the negative edge transition of the pulse. Negative edge transition means an inverter is attached between the CP terminal and the input of the slave. In positive edge triggered master slave flip-flops an additional inverter is attached between the CP terminal and the input of the master. Such flip-flops are triggered with negative pulses. Negative edge of the pulse affects the master and positive edge affects the slave. Timing Diagram The timing relationship is shown in figure and is assumed that the flip-flop is in the clear state prior to the occurrence of the clock pulse. The output state of the master-slave flip-flop occurs on the negative transition of the clock pulse. Some master-slave flip-flops change output state on the positive transition of the clock pulse by having an additional inverter between the CP terminal and the input of the master. Let us say that a clock of certain frequency is fed to the FF, and consider the case of JK being 11. The propagation delay of FF is very very less than the clock pulse time.The FF continues complementing the output an unpredictable number of times, thus leading to anomaly in the final output after the pulse time of the clock is completed.At the end the clock pulse, the value of O is uncertain.This continuous toggling of output when clock is HIGH is known asRace Around condition. This can be eliminated by Clock time should be less than the propagation delay time of the latch. By using Masterslave JK Flip flop. Pulse-Triggered Master-Slave These flip-flops are constructed from two separate flip-flops. The term pulse-triggered means that data are entered into the flip-flop on the leading edge of the clock pulse, but the output does not reflect the input state until the trailing edge of the clock pulse. This is due to the master flip-flop being rising edge triggered and the slave flip-flop being falling edge triggered as illustrated in the figure below. Master-Slave J-K Flip-Flop A master slave flip flop is a cascade of two S R flip flops with feedback from the outputs of the second to the inputs of the first. Positive clock pulses are applied to the first flip flop and clock pulses are inverted before these are applied to the second flip flop. The logic symbol for the master-slave flip-flop only indicates the initial inputs to the master and the outputs from the slave as indicated by the J-K master-slave flip-flop shown in figure Operation of master-slave J-k flip flop Whe CK=1, the first flip flop is enabled and the outputs Q and Q(toggle) respond to the J K according to its truth table.At this time the second flip flop is inhibited because its clock is LOW. When CK goes LOW, the first flip flop is inhibited and the second flip flop is enabled, because now its clock isHIGH.Since the second flip flop simply follows the first one it is referred to as slave and he first one as the master. Master-slave D flip-flop Consider the following terms: RIPPLE THROUGH: An input changes level during the clock period, and the change appears at the output. PROPAGATION DELAY: The time between applying a signal to an input, and the resulting change in the output. These problems can be overcome by masterslave D Flip flop. A master-slave D flip-flop is created by connecting two gated D latches in series, and inverting the enable input to one of them. It is called master-slave because the second latch in the series only changes in response to a change in the first (master) latch. The term pulse-triggered means that data is entered on the rising edge of the clock pulse, but the output does not reflect the change until the falling edge of the clock pulse. It responds on the negative edge of the enable input usually a clock. For a positive-edge triggered master-slave D flip-flop, when the clock signal is low (logical 0) the enable seen by the first or master D latch (the inverted clock signal) is high (logical 1). This allows the master latch to store the input value when the clock signal transitions from low to high. As the clock signal goes high (0 to 1) the inverted enable of the first latch goes low (1 to 0) and the value seen at the input to the master latch is locked. Nearly simultaneously, the twice inverted enable of the second or slave D latch transitions from low to high (0 to 1) with the clock signal. This allows the signal captured at the rising edge of the clock by the now locked master latch to pass through the slave latch. When the clock signal returns to low (1 to 0), the output of the slave latch is locked, and the value seen at the last rising edge of the clock is held while the master latch begins to accept new values in preparation for the next rising clock edge. By removing the leftmost inverter in the above circuit, a D-type flip flop that strobes on the falling edge of a clock signal can be obtained. The truth table obtained is as follows: CONVENTIONS: The circuit is set means output = 1 The circuit is reset means output = 0 Flip-flops have two output Q and Q or (Q and Q) Due to time related characteristic of the flip-flop, Q and Q (or Q) are usually represented as followed: Qt or Q: present state Qt+1 or Q+: next state POINTS TO REMEMBER: When using a real flip-flop, the following information is needed to be considered: propagation delay (tpLH, tpHL) time needed for an input signal to produce an output signal minimum pulse width (tw(min)) minimum amount of time a signal must be applied setup and hold time (tsu, th) minimum time the input signal must be held fixed before and after the latching action. USES: A flip-flop is used to store one bit, or binary digit, of data. Any one of the flip-flop types can be used to build any of the others. Many logic synthesis tools will not use any other type than D flip-flop and D latch. Level sensitive latches cause problems with Static Timing Analysis (STA) tools and Design For Test (DFT). Many FPGA devices contain only edge-triggered D flip-flops The data contained in several flip-flops may represent the state of a sequencer, the value of a counter, an ASCII character in a computers memory or any other piece of information. One use is to build finite state machines from electronic logic. The flip-flops remember the machines previous state, and digital logic uses that state to calculate the next state. Frequency division: a chain of T flip-flops as described above will also function to divide an input in frequency by 2n, where n is the number of flip-flops used between the input and the output. Master Slave Flip Flop is useful in eliminating race around condition. They are used in both asynchronous and clocked sequential systems.

Friday, September 20, 2019

The link between capital market and economic growth in Rwanda

The link between capital market and economic growth in Rwanda 1.1 Background Today most economies around the world are judged by the performance of their capital markets. The potential role of financial markets in economic growth has been well documented. Most African countries including those in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) have recently under gone financial sector reforms such as restructuring and privatizing of state owned banks and establishment of capital markets. In the literature there are different views on the link between capital markets and economic growth of a nation. North (1996) shows that, differences in economic institutions are the major sources of cross-country differences in economic growth and prosperity. High quality institutions have a positive influence on the depth and development of the financial sector of nations. This proposed research will mainly consult with the literature about the link between capital market and economic growth and the role that institutions play in capital markets and try to pinpoint and relate these to the Rwandan context. In developed capital markets households are the major participants as investors. Saunders and Cornett (2004) claimed that in the United States, households are the single largest holders of corporate stock. However, the capital markets of least developed countries are very shallow in terms of capitalization because of a limited number of listed companies and limited participation of households (savers) either due to lack of capacity or lack of awareness as to the capital markets. Therefore this study will also examine the impact of the households (savers) in the capital markets in least developed countries in Africa including Rwanda. 1.2 Statement of the Problem Despite a surge of global investor interest in the 1980s and 1990s, Africa has been bypassed by the massive international capital flowing to developing economies. Aggregate capital flows to developing countries have been rapidly exceeding official development assistance flows since 1980s. However, Africa remains the only developing region in which development assistance flows exceeds private capital flows (Senbet and Otchere, 2006). This was mainly attributed to the lack or absence of a well developed financial sector (capital markets, banks, finance companies, life insurance companies, and insurance companies) and the poor economic policies and institutions in African countries. Capital markets are a vital part of an economy making it possible for industry, trade and commerce to flourish without any obstacle in terms of resources. The financial markets serve a vital purpose in the growth and development of a company that wants to expand. For such companies with expansion plans and new projects in need of funding and investors looking for a better return, the financial market is the best platform. The private sector usually lacks access to credit facilities. Investment, growth and economic welfare are all too low in developing countries. This is more severe in Africa, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa (Platt, 1998). Most African countries, particularly those in Sub-Saharan Africa, have recently undergone extensive financial sector reforms. The reform package includes restructuring and privatization of state owned banks, the introduction of private banking systems, along with bank supervisory and regulatory schemes, the introduction of a variety of measures to promote the development of financail markets; including money and stock markets (Senbet and Otchere, 2006). Rwandas economy primarily depends on agricultural productivity. The industry and service sectors are not entirely developed to push the economy towards higher growth. Rwandas long-term development plan, as articulated in Vision 2020, seeks to transform Rwanda into a middle-income country and an economic trade and communications hub by the year 2020. An effectively functioning financial sector is a fundamentally important and essential element for achieving this objective.   Rwanda seeks to develop a financial sector that is effective, in particular, by  expanding access to credit and financial services; enhancing savings mobilization, especially long term savings; and mobilizing long-term capital for investment. A key strategic goal of the Vision 2020 plan is to make Rwanda an economic trade and communications hub in the heart of Africa.   This will require significant investment in infrastructure in the form of roads, power, rail, airports and telecommunications.   These plans also call for the active participation and expansion of the private sector in Rwandas economy which will require long term investment in infrastructure and industry, which can only be provided through the mobilization of domestic savings through capital markets.   The Rwanda capital market now referred to as the Rwanda Over the Counter (OTC) market was established by the Capital Market Advisory Council in January 2008. It is from this perspective the researcher is undertaking this study to see the link between capital market and economic growth in Rwanda. How does Rwanda stand to benefit from this capital market? 1.3 Purpose of the study The main purpose of this thesis is to investigate and review the literature on the link between capital market and the economic growth and prosperity of a nation, particularly in Rwanda. This study will also examine the importance of institutions for the performance of capital markets and households (savers) contribution to the capital market so that companies can raise the required capital easily in a country where financing is limited to the banking sector and yet accessible only to a few big private companies and state owned enterprises. 1.4 Objectives of the study The objectives of this proposed study are mainly to find out: Whether capital market is an alternative towards the economic growth of least developed countries such as Ethiopia. The role of institutions toward the development of capital market. Whether households savings will make a real impact on the overall performance, liquidity, and market capitalization of the capital market in Rwanda. 1.5 Research questions This thesis is intended to answer the following questions: Is a capital market an alternative towards the economic growth of least developed countries in general and for Rwanda in particular? Will institutions be vital for the performance of capital market in Rwanda? Will domestic savings in Rwanda have a role to play in the capital market? 1.6 Scope of the study This study presents the different views as to the link between capital markets and economic growth, and the role that institutions play in the performance of capital markets. The focus being the capital market in Rwanda; it also investigates the impact of households savings on capital market in Rwanda. 1.7 Significance of the study The researcher intends to collect data in order to analyse the link between capital market and economic growth in Rwanda. This study will examine the role of institutions toward the development of capital market as well as the impact of the households (savers) in the capital market in Rwanda. Additionally, this research is to fulfill the requirement of the Masters degree in Business Administration. 1.8 Definitions of terms Financial sector: The Reserve Bank of Australia (, defines financial sector as the sector of the economy that comprises financial institutions and financial markets. Financial institution: A company whose primary function is to intermediate between lenders and borrowers in the economy. ( Institutions: in this proposed study institutions could be defined as follows: Definition 1 ( Establishment, foundation, or organization created to pursue a particular type of endeavor, such as banking by a financial institution. Definition 2 ( Consistent and organized pattern of behavior or activities (established by law or custom) that is self-regulating in accordance with generally accepted norms. For example, political institutions are involved with (and regulate) competition for power; and economic institutions (such as markets) encourage and regulate production and distribution of goods and services. Least Developed Countries (LCDs): In its latest triennial review of the list of Least Developed Countries in 2003, the Economic and Social Council of the United Nations used the following three criteria for the identification of the LDCs, as proposed by the Committee for Development Policy (CDP): a low-income criterion, based on a three-year average estimate of the gross national income (GNI) per capita (under $750 for inclusion, above $900 for graduation); a human resource weakness criterion, involving a composite Human Assets Index (HAI) based on indicators of: (a) nutrition; (b) health; (c) education; and (d) adult literacy; and an economic vulnerability criterion, involving a composite Economic Vulnerability Index (EVI) based on indicators of: (a) the instability of agricultural production; (b) the instability of exports of goods and services; (c) the economic importance of non-traditional activities (share of manufacturing and modern services in GDP); (d) merchandise export concentration; and (e) the handicap of economic smallness (as measured through the population in logarithm); and the percentage of population displaced by natural disasters. REFERENCES LIST Demirguc-Kunt, A., Maksimovic, V. (1996). Stock Market Development and Corporate Finance Decisions. Finance Development, 33(2), 47-50. North, D. C., Weingast, B. R. (1996). Constitutions and Commitment: The Evolution of Institutions Governing Public Choice in Seventeenth-Century England. In L. J. Alston, T. Eggertosson D. C. North (Eds.), Empirical Studies in Institutional Change: Cambridge University Press. Nyong, Michael O. (1997): Capital Market Development and Long-run Economic Growth: Theory, Evidence and Analysis First Bank Review, December 1997: 13-38. Samuel, Cherian (1996): Stock Market and Investment: The Governance Role of the Market The World Bank Review Volume 10 Number 2. Saunders, A., Cornett, M. M. (2004). Financial Markets and Institutions (2 ed.). New York: Mc Graw-Hill/ Irwin. Senbet, L. W., Otchere, I. (2006). Financial Sector Reforms in Africa: Perspectives on issues and policies. In B. Francois B. Pleskovic (Eds.), Annual World Bank Conference on Development Economics: Growth and Integration (Senegal Proceedings). Washington, D.C.: The World Bank. Rwanda financial sector development program (2007). Retrieved January 12, 2011, from

Thursday, September 19, 2019

An Analysis of Elizabeth Bishops 12 OClock News Essay -- 12 O Clock

An Analysis of Elizabeth Bishop's 12 O'Clock News In â€Å"12 O’Clock News,† Elizabeth Bishop accentuates the difficulty involved in perceiving the â€Å"truth.† She utilizes a technique of constructing an exotic world out of objects that can be found in a newsroom. By defamiliarizing a newsroom, she questions our trust in what we perceive. Is it truly a journey to another world or just another perspective on something we are already familiar with? The intent of this transformation is to create a substitute for reality, analogous to the substitute reality which the media presents to us each day as its product, the â€Å"news.† The news media are capable of creating a world beyond what we see everyday, presenting us with what appears to be the truth about cultures we will never encounter firsthand. Bishop’s manipulation of a newsroom parallels the way the media distorts our perception of the world, and by doing so questions our ability to find our way out of this fog which is â€Å"reality.† By choosing the newsroom to manipulate in â€Å"12 O’Clock News,† Bishop draws attention to the relationship between the news and the public. Bishop never directly admits that it is a newsroom with which she has defamiliarized us. One indication of the setting being a newsroom is the format in which she presents the information. Along the left margin, Bishop includes a title or subject matter for each stanza, similar to the inclusion of a headline for each news story. These titles serve as clues to the reality of what she is presenting, allowing or urging us to relate the two or to keep in mind that although the objects she presents seem foreign, they are actually common and known to us. Comparing the two creates a clouding of perception; although the truth or... ...ndition of society. It is also somewhat optimistic since Bishop refers to the soldiers as â€Å"our opponents† or what we do not want to become. This alludes to the war that we must fight against ourselves to discern our path through the cloudy air that surrounds us. As much as we would like to believe this optimism, even that is unclear because Bishop delivers the entire poem with such skepticism that the words cannot be taken at face value. Is it possible to have a â€Å"superior vantage point,† or is this too optimistic? This â€Å"superior vantage point† could also be an admittance that Bishop herself is acting as the new media, throwing everything perceived throughout the poem into further question and cloudiness, leaving everything uncertain and up to us to elucidate. Work Cited * Elizabeth Bishop, â€Å"12 O’Clock News,† in Geography III (New York: Noonday Press, 1988).

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

Microraptor Zhaoianus Discovery Strengthens the Dinosaur-Bird Connectio

Microraptor Zhaoianus Discovery Strengthens the Dinosaur-Bird Connection Theory The evolutionary connection between dinosaurs and birds (that birds evolved from theropod dinosaurs) has long been theorized and is today generally accepted as a scientifically viable school of thought. Furthermore, several monumental discoveries have recently been made (21st century) in the area of the fossil record which have acted to solidify this evolutionary connection, drawing the evidentiary ties between dinosaurs and birds even closer together. Paramount among these new unearthings is the recent discovery (in 2000) of the Microraptor zhaoianus. In the following analysis I will attempt to summarize both the discovery of this unusual specie, and the impact the discovery has had on the school of thought regarding the evolution of birds. The discovery expressed in the original article of my research is that of a Microraptor zhaoianus fossil. The Microraptor zhaoianus is classified as a non-avian, dromaeosaurid (swift lizard), which is a subgroup of the theropods1[1]. The theropods were a group of raptors whose characteristics included small size, bipedalism, and a close relation to birds2[2]. Certainly, there is no doubt that the Microraptor fits this description. The size of the Microraptor is indeed a large part of what makes its discovery so important. On the whole, non-avian dinosaurs are classified as medium to large sized entities. However, the Microrapto is unusually small as its body measures a mere 47 mm3[3]. In fact, it is the first fully mature non avian dinosaur on record that has been found to be smaller (only slightly) than the earliest known bird, Archaeopteryx4[4]. Furthermore, in addition to its comparabl...> (15 March 2004). 3[3] Xu, 705-708. 4[4] Xu, 705-708. 5[5] Anna Salleh, â€Å"Chinese macroraptor looks like bird-dinosaur link† 8 December 2000, <> (15 March 2004). 6[6] Xu, 705-708. 7[7] Xu, 705-708. 8[8] Xu, 705-708. 9[9] Salleh,1. 10[10] Xu, 705-708. 11[11] Xu, 705-708. 12[12] Xu, 705-708. 13[13] Xu, 705-708 14[14] Richard Prum, â€Å"Paleontology: Dinosaurs take to the air,† Nature 421, no. 6921 (2003): 323. 15[15] Prum, 323. 16[16] Xu, 705-708. 17[17] Paul Willis, â€Å"Dinosaur fossil with proto-feathers,† 8 March 2001, <> (5 April 2004). 18[18] Paul Willis, â€Å"Missing link from fur to feathers,† 27 April 2001, <> (5 April 2004).

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

Negative Images of African Americans in the Media

Mass media is a powerful force in American pop culture. Images seen on billboards, television, magazines, and the big screen create lasting impressions. Sometimes these impressions have a negative impact. Mass media can be very detrimental to society if it is not criticized. Many groups of Americans are negatively affected by the images and content of mass media. African Americans are at the top of this list. Images of African Americans in television, music, and film are often less than stellar.Black men are often portrayed as drug pushers, pimps, thugs, and dead beat dads, while black women are portrayed as poor, lazy, and promiscuous. This needs to stop! That is a given! Question is, how are these negative images going to be stopped? Several steps should be taken in order to prevent these negative images in the media. The origins of these images need to be examined, and modern racism and prejudice need to be exposed. There may be some accuracy to the negative images of African Amer icans in the media, but that is no excuse.The media should focus more on uplifting people. African Americans have historically had a disadvantage when compared to their white counterparts. This should not be exploited for entertainment purposes. African Americans are often placed in roles that portray them as poorly educated. This dates all the way to minstrel shows! This is still a problem today! Americans are more comfortable laughing at blacks as appose to understanding blacks. The main problem with images of African Americans is that they are one dimensional.African Americans are diverse and come from a variety of backgrounds. If an African American is portrayed as a druggie or a convict, then there should be some reasoning behind this. People don't become drug addicts for the fun of it; they become drug addicts because they want to numb themselves from the pain and suffering of their everyday lives. Black men and women don't become criminals because they are horrible people. Th ey become criminals because they are taught that they have no other option!African Americans have to stand up for themselves and fight against the media. That is the only way things will change. While doing this, they may have to criticize other African Americans. This should be done with love. Black rappers, singers, and actors should be held with some responsibility. Black leaders like Oprah Winfrey and Bill Cosby have spoken out about this. Rappers, including Ludacris and 50 Cent have been criticized for their lyrics.It is unclear if they are rapping about their experiences in order to expose their struggles, or if they are exploiting the black struggle with their lyrics. Violence, sexuality, and the lack of education are unfortunately a part of African American society. The media should show this. Rappers and singers should perform songs about this. Black actors should play roles that depict this. Black actors, singers, and rappers should not exploit these disadvantages. Instead they should use their craft to create solutions to these problems. Drugs and violence should not be glamorized!

Monday, September 16, 2019

Basketball: Visual Perception and Eye

Does crossed hand-eye dominance affect free throw shooting in basketball? The purpose of this experiment is to learn about crossed hand eye dominance and help increase free throw percentage in basketball. Some further investigations could include testing if crossed hand-eye dominance effected hand-eye coordination, if air pressure will affect the dynamics of ball bouncing, or if people that are left-dominant or right-dominant affect any certain thing. First, the eye dominance test was conducted, which determines the dominant eye. From that it is determined if the subject was crossed hand eye dominant, or uncrossed hand eye dominant.Does crossed hand-eye dominance affect free throw shooting in basketball? Hand-eye dominance and how it affects basketball shooting are the focus of what is expected to learn about. The idea of having a dominant hand (being left-handed or0 right-handed) is familiar to everyone. What may not be so familiar is the concept of a dominant eye. Most people are a ccustomed to using both eyes together, and don't think much about situations where it might matter if one eye is dominant over the other. When shooting free throws in basketball, players often hold the ball up at face-level when preparing for the shot.In this position, the ball can easily block (at least partially) the eye on the same side of the body as the shooting hand. For shooters with uncrossed hand and eye dominances, this would mean that the dominant eye was partially blocked. For shooters with crossed hand and eye dominances, this would mean that the non-dominant eye was partially blocked. Clearly, basketball players must use their vision to locate the target and judge distance and line before skills take over to send the ball on its way. Hand and eye dominance must work together to help ones score baskets.Crossed hand eye dominance alone will not help ones score, but with other factors involved, it might help one score a basket. If one is crossed hand-eye dominant, then th eir shooting percentage will increase because when players shoot free throws, they often hold the ball up at face-level when preparing for the shot. In this position, the ball can easily block the eye on the same side of the body as the shooting hand. For shooters with uncrossed hand and eye dominances, this would mean that the dominant eye was partially blocked. For shooters with crossed hand and eye ominances, this would mean that the non-dominant eye was partially blocked. The independent variable is if you are cross hand-eye dominant, and the dependent variable is how many free-throws you make. Eye dominance refers to the eye that the brain prefers, or one that has stronger processing in the brain than the other. People usually have one eye that likes to take over when binocular vision is impaired, or one eye that is more sensitive to visual discrimination. During suppression, when the brain chooses to process only one eye, the other eye is in essence shut down.Usually it makes no difference in correcting for visual defects with eyeglasses or contacts. Data from previously done experiments support this hypothesis. One experiment done by Keith Hines and Robert Thurman stated that crossed hand-eye dominant people have a higher free throw percentage than uncrossed hand-eye dominant people. Another experiment proved the same results. This project was conducted by Ashton W. Pomrehn, who found that crossed hand-eye dominance has a positive effect on basketball players.It makes logical sense that crossed hand-eye dominance would have a positive effect on free throw percentage because if you have uncrossed hand-eye dominance, your dominant eye is blocked by the hand shooting the basketball. According to an article in â€Å"Experimental Psychology,† the proper sequence of vision and action in shooting a basketball is not conclusively affected by crossed hand-eye dominance. Experiments testing the accuracy of basketball players shooting the ball through a var iety of visual stimuli showed that, among other things, individuals tend to adjust to whatever dominant hand-eye combination they possess.Shooting a basketball simply reflects their hand-eye skills in general. Some key terms are: dominance- the normal tendency for one side of the brain to be more important than the other in controlling certain functions, as speech and language: crossed- mixed, usually with two components; and, eye dominance- the tendency to prefer visual input from one eye to the other. More key terms are: Hand dominance- the preference of one hand to perform fine and gross motor tasks; and, crossed hand eye Dominance- having opposite dominances in eyes and hands.There are a few key points to know while conducting this experiment. â€Å"Eye Dominance† refers to the eye that the brain â€Å"prefers† or one that has stronger â€Å"processing† in the brain than the other. People usually have one eye that likes to â€Å"take over† when binocu lar vision is impaired, or one eye that is more sensitive to visual discrimination. During suppression, when the brain â€Å"chooses† to process only one eye, the other eye is â€Å"shut down†. Usually it makes no difference in correcting for visual defects with eyeglasses or contacts.

Sunday, September 15, 2019

The Vaccine Controversy

The vaccine controversy is the dispute over the morality, ethics, effectiveness, and /or safety of vaccinations. The medical and scientific evidence is that the benefits of preventing suffering and death from infectious diseases outweigh rare adverse effects of immunization. Since vaccination began in the late 18th century, opponents have claimed that vaccines do not work, that they are or may be dangerous, that individuals should rely on personal hygiene instead, or that mandatory vaccinations violate individual rights or religious principles. And since then, successful campaigns against vaccinations have resulted in unnecessary injuries and mass death. Vaccines may cause side effects, and the success of immunization programs depend on public confidence for their safety. Concerns about immunization safety often follow a pattern: some investigators suggest that a medical condition in an adverse effect of vaccination; a premature announcement is made of the alleged side effect; the initial study is not reproduced by other groups; and finally, it takes several years to regain public confidence in the vaccine. In this paper I will be explaining several areas of the vaccine controversy: 1. The history of vaccinations and effectiveness 2. Why some parents are against immunizations 3. What are the findings Vaccination became widespread in the United Kingdom in the early 1800’s. Before that, religious arguments against inoculation (the placement of something that will grow or reproduce) were advanced. In a 1772 a sermon entitled â€Å"The Dangerous and Sinful Practice of Inoculation†, the English theologian Rev. Edmund Massey argued that diseases are sent by God to punish sin and that any attempt to prevent small pox via inoculation is a â€Å"diabolical operation†. Some anti – vaccinationists still base their stance against vaccination with reference to their religious beliefs. Public policy and successive Vaccination Acts first encouraged vaccination and then made it mandatory for all infants in 1853, with the highest penalty for refusal being a prison sentence. This was a significant change in the relationship between the British state and its citizens causing public backlash. After an 1867 law extended the requirement age to fourteen years, its opponents focused concern on infringement of individual freedom, and eventually a law in 1898 allowed for objection to vaccination. In the United States, President Thomas Jefferson took a close interest in vaccination, alongside Dr. Waterhouse, chief physician at Boston. Jefferson encouraged the development of ways to transport vaccine material through the Southern states, which included measures to avoid damage by heat, a leading cause of ineffective batches. Smallpox outbreaks were contained by a latter half of the 19th century, a development widely attributed to vaccination of a large portion of the population. Vaccinations rates after this decline in smallpox cases, and the disease again became epidemic in late 19th century. At this point in the 19th century, anti-vaccination activity increased in the U. S. Mass vaccination helped eradicate smallpox, which once killed as many as one in every seventh child in Europe. Vaccination has almost eradicated polio. As a more modest example, incidence of invasive disease with Haemophilus influenzae, a major cause of bacterial meningitis, and other serious disease in children has decreased by over 99% in the U. S. since the introduction of a vaccine in 1988. Fully vaccinating all U. S. children born in a given year from birth to adolescence saves an estimated 14 million infections. Some vaccine critics claim that there have never been any benefits to public health from vaccination. They argue that all the reduction of communicable diseases which were rampant in conditions where overcrowding, poor sanitation, almost non-existent hygiene, and a yearly period of very restricted diet existed are reduced because of changes in conditions excepting vaccination. Other critics argue that immunity given by vaccines is only temporarily and requires boosters, whereas those who survive the disease become permanently immune. Lack of complete vaccine coverage increases the risk of disease for the entire population, including those who have been vaccinated, because it reduces herd immunity. For example, measles targets children between the ages of 9 and 12 months, and the short window between the disappearance of maternal antibody (before which the vaccine often fails to seroconvert) and natural infection means that vaccinated children frequently are still vulnerable. Herd immunity lessens this vulnerability, if all the children are vaccinated. Increasing herd immunity during an outbreak or threatened outbreak is the most widely accepted justification for mass vaccination. Mass vaccination also helps to increase coverage rapidly, thus obtaining herd immunity, when a new vaccine is introduced. Commonly used vaccines are a cost – effective and preventive way of promoting good health, compared to the cost of treatment of acute or chronic diseases. In the U. S. during the year 2001, routine childhood immunizations against seven diseases were estimated to save over $40 billion per year, overall social costs including $10 billion in direct health costs, and the societal benefit – cost ratio for these vaccinations was estimated to be $16. 5 billion. In several countries reductions in the use of some vaccines was followed by increases in the diseases morbidity and morality. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, continued high levels of vaccine coverage are necessary to prevent resurgence of disease which had been eliminated. Few deny the vast improvements vaccination has made to the public health. They are more concerned with the safety of vaccines. All vaccines may cause side effects, and immunization safety is a huge concern. Controversies in this area revolve around the question of whether the risks of perceived adverse effects following immunization outweigh the benefit of preventing adverse effects of common diseases. There is scientific evidence that in rare cases immunizations can cause adverse effects, such as oral polio vaccine causing paralysis however, current scientific evidence does not support the hypothesis of causation for more common disorders such as autism. Although the hypotheses that vaccines cause autism are biologically implausible, it would be hard to study scientifically whether autism is less common in children who do not follow recommended vaccination schedules, because an experiment based on withholding vaccines from children would be unethical. Another concern of parents regarding the safety of vaccines is the thought that vaccine overload will weaken a child’s immune system and can lead to adverse side effects. Although scientific evidence does not support and even contradicts this idea, many parent especially parents of autistic children, firmly believe that vaccine overload causes autism. However, the idea of vaccine overload does not stand for several reasons. First of all, vaccines do not overwhelm the immune system. In fact, scientists believe that the immune system can respond to thousands of viruses simultaneously. Also, despite the number of increase in the number of vaccines over recent decades, improvements in vaccine design have reduced the immunologic load from vaccines, such that the number of immunological components in the fourteen vaccines administered in the U. S. to children is less than 10% of what it was in the seven vaccines given in 1980. Vaccines constitutes only a tiny fraction of the pathogens naturally encountered by a child in a typical year and common childhood conditions such as fevers and middle ear infections pose a much greater challenge to the immune system than vaccines do. Second, studies have shown that vaccinations, and even multiple concurrent vaccinations, do not weaken the immune system, or compromise overall immunity. Other safety concerns about vaccines have been published on the Internet, in informal meetings, in books, and at symposia. These include hypotheses that vaccination can cause sudden infant death syndrome, epileptic seizures, allergies, multiple sclerosis, and autoimmune diseases such as type 1 diabetes, as well as hypotheses that vaccination can transmit bovine spongiform encephalopathy, Hepatitis C, and HIV. These hypotheses have all been investigated with the conclusions that currently used vaccines meet high safety standards, and that the criticism of vaccine safety in the popular press are not justified. Finally, there is no evidence of an immune-system role in autism. The lack of evidence supporting the vaccine overload hypotheses, combined with these findings directly contradicting it, have led to the conclusion that currently recommended vaccines programs do not overload or weaken the immune systems and are a greater benefit than a risk to children. I am a mother of 2 healthy boys, as a parent I have made the choice to have my children vaccinated against all diseases except H1N1. I did not have my children vaccinated against H1N1 for personal reasons. However, from the time of both of their births they have been vaccinated with all the immunizations as directed by their doctor and I have never had any issues with their health. I am a true believer that the benefits of immunizations out weigh the risks. The research I found while writing this paper backs up and supports everything I have ever believed about immunizations since the birth of my first child fifteen years ago. I would recommend to all new parents to vaccinate their children. Of course I do understand that there are side effects of immunizations shots, the most common one I have dealt with my children is a mild fever and maybe mild bruising in the area of the injection however, I would much rather deal with a mild fever for a day than the thought of my child catching a deadly disease. References Adams, M (2003). Health Library The Immunization Controversy: Should Your Child Be Immunized? Salive, ME (1997). Healing Arts Children’s Vaccines: Research on Risks for Children from Vaccine Gervais, Roger (2007). Natural Life Magazine Understanding the Vaccine Controversy Center for Disease Control and Prevention Possible Side Effects from Vaccines

Saturday, September 14, 2019

Self Presentation

Self presentation When you meet someone for the first time, it comes to your mind a certain impression about him or her. On the other side, that person also takes a certain impression about you. This impression might be positive or negative. It depends on how you present yourself to others. Unfortunately, the first impression is sometimes unfair because the person you meet for the first time may take a wrong impression about you. For example, my friend told me that before we became close friends, she was thinking that I am arrogant, but when she became close to me, she discovered that she took a wrong impression about me.In fact, I am not sociable and I don't take the initiative in getting to know others. That is why those who do not know me well think i am arrogant, but that is not true about me. The first impression whether it is true or not may affect the way you treat people and how they treat you forever. For example, I fall in love with someone. When we first meet each other, h e told me that he belongs to the royal family. Later, I discovered that he was lying to me. I know that he is from the upper class and he belongs to a prominent family, so there was no need to lie about his family name.Actually, because of this lie, I took an impression about him that he is not trustworthy, so we broke up. In most cases, the first impression lasts forever, so you should present yourself in a good image. To make others take a good impression about you, you must consider the following; First, be yourself. Don't tell anything that is not true about you. Show your real personality. Second, take care of your appearance. Your dress should be clean and appropriate to the customs of society in which you live. Moreover, be careful in your appointments.If you attend the meeting on time, you will get others’ respect because it shows that you care about them. In addition, smile to your audience, keep eye contact when you speak and listen and Speak clearly to let your aud ience understand what you say. Furthermore, choose your words which express what you want to say correctly. In short, we all should present ourselves in the right way to let others take a good impression about us in order to make relationships last longer. Samira Said Al Hajri. Assignment 1. Social psychology_D1.

Friday, September 13, 2019

RedBull & PR Literature review Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

RedBull & PR - Literature review Example This paper presents an analysis of public relation strategies used by Red Bull around the world. Energy drink manufacturers, including Rend Bull GmbH, target a specific market segment, i.e., urban and young male males aged between sixteen and twenty nine (Buchholz, 2010: p43). This market segment has aspirations of living their lives on the edge. Accordingly, Red Bull uses extreme sport as a way of relating to them, with the sport being highly popular among this particular category of consumers. Additionally, the slogan used by Red Bull, i.e., Red Bull Gives You Wings†, was developed with the aim of creating public awareness among this particular segment of customers via communicating that drinking their beverages would ease challenging tasks. Moreover, the company epitomized modern branding by utilizing a marketing communication’s mix, including public relations, which sought to sell a way of life rather than a simple product and become culturally relevant (Buchholz, 20 10: p43). To do this, it was necessary for Red Bull to come up with PR strategies that caught the attention and appealed to their target group. Red Bull has come up with appropriate public relations strategies that are aimed at reaching out to its target market and getting them interested in the product (Russell, 2010: p44). As noted, Red Bull targets customer groups who live an active lifestyle by engaging in extreme sport and activities. In this regard, Red Bull’s public relations strategies attempt to create a perception that Red Bull beverages give necessary energy and edge to users, which can assist them to lead the lifestyle that they desire, as well as increase in their performance ion various aspects of their lives. Public Relations are defined as the relationships that an organization has with various public segments or groups, which have an effect on their ability to achieve their mission, objectives, and goals (Russell, 2010: p11). Companies can leverage PR by usin g publications and press kits on a regular basis in order to inform their shareholders around the world about the company, new products, news, events, and any other issues related to the company. Red Bull publishes its annual reports via which it communicates essential messages to stakeholders and the general public regarding the company. These annual reports serve as an effective tool for advertising where its main strengths and achievements are highlighted (Russell, 2010: p11). Red Bull also identifies Identity Media as one of its most effective tools for advertising (Russell, 2010: p46). The company fully utilizes Identity Media via the development of an online TV channel, which covers various company sponsored sporting events, especially extreme sports, and other programs aimed at attracting consumer interest in the company. Red Bull also publishes the Red Bulletin, a monthly magazine that is distributed by the Telegraph newspaper on Sundays. The issue carries sport reports inte rspersed with product information. The company also uses alternative methods of Public relations, for example, involving their brand in lobby activities in order to integrate themselves into various communities and build relations. One of Red Bull’s most famous public relations

Thursday, September 12, 2019

The Tradition of Judaism Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

The Tradition of Judaism - Essay Example The family has a meal featuring traditional food and wine. The purpose of the ritual to remind people that when God created the Universe in seven days, He devoted a whole day to resting and so should the Jews. I learned that people who adhere to the religious tradition of Judaism tend to perform this ritual on a weekly basis, namely every sun set of Friday and up to the sun set of Saturday. As I have previously noticed, the wife is responsible for lighting up the candles and saying the blessing. Then, the father of the family says all the required prayers and the people are able to have dinner and celebrate Shabbat. It is beyond any doubt that this particular ritual preaches the need of the people to adhere to the religious tradition of Judaism and devote an entire day of the week free from daily routine and contemplating about what really matters in life, namely their relationship with God. There are different methods of praying that are used during this ritual: the words of prayers are pronounced first by the woman and then all the prayers are chanted by a man. In addition to that, people are required to direct their mind to various religious matters so that it would not stray away from the ritual. Speaking of the body placement during the Shabbat, it is a tradition to remain standing while all the major prayers and blessings are performed which shows that the people feel respect for the moment. What is really interesting is that there is a certain function reserved for women during Shabbat: they not only light up the candles but also prepare the meals for the dinner, which puts a lot of responsibility on them.

Wednesday, September 11, 2019

Israeli perception on the six day war and the security dilemma Research Paper

Israeli perception on the six day war and the security dilemma - Research Paper Example The Israeli were angered by the actions of the Arab Nations and the lack of action from the United States and UNEF. Israeli decided to seek a peaceful agreement from the U.S. and UNEF but failed to reach an agreement, this made the Israeli’s to start war with the Arab countries, and in the end Israeli emerged victorious over these countries. Israeli`s Defense Forces had no reason to go to war but were forced by circumstances to fight, for the protection of its people, and securing security for its people. Key words: Israeli, Six Day War, Security, Dilemma, Perception, Israel, Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Arab, U.S., Israeli Defense Force, Army, National Security, Doctrine, Forces, Quality, Quantity, Resources, Threat The Six Day War was a war between five Arab neighbors namely; Syria, Egypt, Jordan, Israeli and her neighbors, in which Israeli captured the most part of Arab territory. This war broke out on 5 June, 1967 and ended on 10 June 1967, following a three week tension, when th e Israelites learned that Egypt had deployed a large army in Sinai Peninsula. The cause of the Six Day War was as a result of increased tension between Israel and its Arab neighbors in the mid 1960`s. Israeli ruling to divert the waters of River Jordan to Negev Desert frustrated the Arabs, who wanted the river to flow to Lake Galilee. Syria had begun to divert the waters but this made Israel bomb Syria in the years 1965 and 1966. Egypt played a big role in the Six Day War; this was because of the: blockade of the Gulf of Aqaba, the Fatah and PLO raid on Israel, the creation of an independent Israel, Israel decision to strike first in 1967, and expulsion of UN forces from Egypt (Rea and Wright, 1997). Historians sited that the reason for Israel attack was because of the poor economic conditions it was experiencing at the time. They explained that a war would distract people`s minds from unemployment and low development and this would bring foreign currency, to boost the economy (â₠¬Å"Causes of the War,† n.d.). The cold war tension motivated and exploited the soviets, to take advantage of the destabilized region, and provide them with military and economic assistance, in order to outsmart Jordan and Iraq, as it increased threats on Israeli By the end of the war, Israeli had captured triple the size of the area controlled. Israeli unified Jerusalem, Sinai, Golan Heights, Gaza Strip and West Bank. Israeli hope was to have peaceful negotiations with the Arabs states (Bard, 2012). Israelis perspective on the events that led to the Six Day War was influenced by views of itself in the region and in the international community during that time. Israeli thought its existence was been threatened, before the war broke out, leaders were also concerned about how Israel would survive. This made Israel to pay back the continued Arab hostility and specific attacks. They thought that this would make the Arab leaders cease to attack Israel and caution them to control the ir acts against Israeli. Many unfriendly superpowers gave Arab countries aid to attack Israeli, and this angered them because of their hostility and unfriendly ways. The main reasons for Israeli attacks were the severe Arab threats, and the role of the United States in a threat that was serious. On May 23, President Nasser of Egypt announced the blockage of strait of Tiran, this changed Israeli`s perception. The question many asked was, what is the United States doing about this decision, and was is

Tuesday, September 10, 2019

Has the Global Financial Crisis lead to fundamental change in the Essay - 1

Has the Global Financial Crisis lead to fundamental change in the relationship between government and business - Essay Example Business is one segment in which governments made some policy changes in order to strengthen the business activities in a controlled manner. In some sectors governments imposed more restrictions whereas in some other sectors government liberalized the rules and assisted the business people to come out from the recession. For example, governments put more control on the activities of financial institutions like banks whereas they assisted other business entities like the automobile sectors in order to save that sector from total destruction. In other words, the relationship between the government and different business entities has undergone contrasting changes because of recession. This paper analyses the extent of changes happened in relationships between the governments and the business because of recession. The relationship between government and business is important both for the government and the business groups. Governments are primarily operating for safeguarding the interests of the people whereas business always works on making profits. Business always tries to exploit the public resources injudiciously to increase their profits. In other words, the interests of public and business are often contradictory and may not go hand in hand. Governments are fixing the boundaries or the norms in order to reach a compromise between the interests of the people and the interests of business. Government need to protect the interests of both. In order to grow economically, business activities should be increased and for that purpose, more liberalized rules are essential. At the same time, these liberalized rules should never affect the public interest negatively. Thus governments are acting as a bridge between the people and business ensuring that either the people or the business taking any undue advantages. According to the renowned economist John Maynard Keynes, a purely free market system would tend to