Friday, May 31, 2019
Global WarmingOne of the hottest topics being discussed now a days is the effects of global warming on the environment and the efforts being made in order to combat the potential effects. Simply put, global warming refers to the environmental effects caused by the constant release of carbon dioxide from carbon found fuels. These effects be supposedly widespread the temperature of the earth will rise, the land becomes less conducive to, vegetation, and various ecosystems become extinct. on that point is no common consensus on how to control the problem and through out the paper it discusses the issues of global warming. There were three denominations read that discussed how global warming is go a potential problem that needs to be analyzed thoroughly. One article (On Global, 118) is very cautious about how to cost the problem the author believes that not enough is known about the effects of global warming versus the costs of containing it. He suggest no more than a modest flat tax on carbon based fuels Another article (Schneider, A17) discusses the debates that the Clinton white house representatives have over the best street in dealing with the problem. The third article (Reuter, C7) touches on the potential effects of global warming in tropical rain forests.Furthermore, each article shows that at that place is no common consensus in dealing with global warming. One article stresses that the issue is so murky that it is open to debate. Another article shows how members of the gaberdine House cannot agree on the matter and yet another author shows how countries cannot agree to ratify a treaty. After reviewing the information available on the subject, it appears that there is no easy answer to how to deal with global warming. To begin with , there is absolutely no consensus whatsoever as to the extent of the problem. One article (On Global, 118) simply maintains that the models available to judge the damage that global warming causes are just too primi tive and insufficient. Both technological and efficient models used to deal with the subject seem flawed. Additionally, the question arises as to whether the U.S. should have to calculate the cost of cleaning up the environment for countries like India and China that are too poor to give the matter priority.But another article (Reuter, C7) maintains that the effects of global warming are alr... ...es on carbon based fuels and timetables for monitoring progress.It is therefore interesting to note how these issues were dealt with by the Clinton- control panel administration. The vice president did not discuss the issue at all after his inauguration. Many Clinton-Gore trial promises were never fullfilled. Why? because they were not practical goals. They met with too much resistance from opponents. This lesson ought to be taken to heart on a number of issues. While Gore and Clinton might have been sincere in their campaign promises, the voters should always wonder what influence the opposition had over them. Additionally, it is on curiosity how the European community support the climate treaty, but when time came to ratify the documents it didnt pass. Work CitedOn Global Warming Why no Carbon Tax? The New York generation 25 May 2006, late ed. Sec 118Reuter. Dangers to Forests Seen from Warming. The New York Times 17 Aug. 2003 late ed., Section C7Schneider, Keith Gore Meets opponent in Efforts for Steps on Global Warming.. The New York Times 19 Apr. 2003, Late Ed. Sec A17WWW. Discover. OrgWWW. NASA .GovWWW. Global Warming. netwww. Edf. org/
Thursday, May 30, 2019
meshwork Radio When a new technology is pioneered or ascertained it is often the case that this new technology is used to emulate the function of old technologies, for example, when Marconi was inventing the radio he was trying to emulate the function of the telegraph strategy and saw the defracation of radio waves as an obstacle. Eventually these new technologies mature and the advantages and disadvantages are weighed up and used in their most effective capacity. Internet radio is a prime example of this kind of technology convergence, which uses the world wide web, the publicly available worldwide system of interconnected computer networks that transmit data by packet switching over the internet protocol (IP)..made up of thousands of other, smaller business, academic, and government networks (WWW.WORDIQ.COM 2004) to transmit live, streaming audio information from all over the world. Whilst this media chase over is still in its relative infancy, current developments show that int ernet radio has the potential to make local broadcast radio almost obsolete.Arguably, the send-off regular internet radio broadcast started in 1993 when Carl Malamud established Internet Talk Radio featuring a regular Geek of the Week interview segment. (Naughton, lavatory 2004) This was radio by name only, in reality the radio show had to be down loaded in full as a intemperate file before it could be listened to, the technology had not progressed far enough to listen to the interviews live. The other down side to this system was that the files were exceptionally declamatory and took a long time to down load. This all changed in 1994 (Naughton, John. 2004) when a company called ProgressiveNetworks created audio streaming technology in which a file could be p... ...ssed 11 September, 2004Naughton, J. (July 21, 2002), The Golden Age of Internet Radio, (The Guardian), Available http//observer.guardian.co.uk/comment/story/0,6903,759023,00.html(Accessed 2004, September11).Naraine, Ryan (July 26, 2002) Web Radio Law Changes Introduced (www.internetnews.com) available at http//www.internetnews.com/bus-news/article.php/1433921 accessed 11 September, 2004Reed, Fred (August 5, 2004), Internet Radio - Redefining through Personalization , (Knight Ridder Tribune Buisness News), Available http//www.digitalhollywood.com/SanJoseWedSix.html Accessed 11 September 2004.Sawhney, Harmeet and Lee, Seungwhan (October 2000), Areas of Innovation, Fringe Groups and Discovery of New Liberties of Action, (www.slis.indiana.edu), Available http//www.slis.indiana.edu/CSI/WP/wp00-03B.html (Accessed September 11, 2004)
Wednesday, May 29, 2019
Wedding Consultants 1.0 Executive Summary CMG Wedding Consultants is a full inspection and repair company that provides complete consulting services for weddings, birthdays, anniversaries and every different special event. Our consultants are experienced and dedicated professionals with numerous years of event planning experience. CMG is unique in that we give our clients our undivided attention. We listen to their needs and work with them to create the event of their dreams. Our clients wishes become our commands. So whether our client wants a Western, Tropical, Las Vegas or more traditional wedding, we washbasin help. Our services include weddings, honeymoons, receptions, anniversary consultations, budget planning, answers to etiquette questions, as well as full-service florists, hair stylists, entertainers, musicians, etc. We also provide the inventions and thank you nones 1.1 Objectives Whether this is our clients first wedding, a surrogate of their vows or their anniversa ry, we want every detail of their event to be both a pleasurable and a memorable experience. With our full service the client does not have to stress on getting everything done, we do it each for them. Therefore we offer a host of packages and services specifically tailored to the needs of severally couple. 1.2 Mission At CMG our mission is to keep our customers pleased Partys can be very stressful and time consuming, we are here to pick up the pressure of the client so they can spend more leisure time with family. We listen to their needs and work with them to create the event of their dreams. Our clients wishes become our commands. We are confident that this business venture will be a success and we estimate that our 1.3 Keys to Success The keys to our success are as follows 1. assist our clients needs promptly and efficiently. 2. Maintain excellent working relationships with vendors such as musicians, hair salons and bridal shops. 3. Maintain a professional image at all times . net income will increase more than 10% by the second year. 2.0 Company Summary CMG Wedding Consultants is a start-up company that provides wedding, reunions, and anniversary consulting services to brides, grooms and other family members. We are a full-service bridal consulting group and our goal is to put the fun back into planning a wedding, birthday or anniversary party. Too many people become overly stressed and frustrated when plan... ...eivables $51,322 $67,444 $74,775 Subtotal Cash from Operations $89,442 $113,188 $125,093 Additional Cash Received Extraordinary Items $0 $0 $0 gross sales Tax, VAT, HST/GST Received $0 $0 $0 New Current Borrowing $0 $0 $0 New Other Liabilities (interest-free) $0 $0 $0 New Long-term Liabilities $0 $0 $0 Sales of other Short-term Assets $0 $0 $0 Sales of Long-term Assets $0 $0 $0 Capital Input $0 $0 $0 Subtotal Cash Received $89,442 $113,188 $125,0 Expenditures 2001 2002 2003 Expenditures from Operations Cash Spent on Costs and Expenses $1,396 $1,029 $1,150 Wages, Salaries, Payroll Taxes, etc. $53,100 $76,200 $85,800 Payment of Accounts Payable $11,446 $9,556 $10,252 Subtotal Spent on Operations $65,942 $86,785 $97,202 Additional Cash Spent Sales Tax, VAT, HST/GST Paid Out $0 $0 $0 school principal repayment of Current Borrowing $0 $0 $0 Other Liabilities Principal Repayment $0 $0 $0 Long-term Liabilities Principal Repayment $0 $0 $0 Purchase Other Short-term Assets $0 $0 $0 Purchase Long-term Assets $0 $0 $0 Dividends $0 $0 $0 Adjustment for Assets Purchased on Credit $0 $0 $0 Subtotal Cash Spent $65,942 $86,785 $97,202 Net Cash Flow $23,500 $26,404 $27,891 Cash equilibrize $28,500 $54,903 $82,794
Reader Response to Joyces The Dead James Joyces story The Dead has a fearsome impact on the endorsers, especially those who are familiar with the political situation in Ireland at the time about which the Joyce wrote the final story in Dubliners. In exploring the meaning of James Joyces long short-story, The Dead, there are many critical approaches to take. Each approach gives readers a lens, a set of guidelines through which to catch and express ideas of the meaning of The Dead. Joyce himself said that the idea of paralysis was the intended theme of all the stories in The Dubliners of which The Dead is the final story. Of all critical approaches, reader rejoinder works best for me. This approach examines the images, symbols, point-of-view, characterization and setting of The Dead in such a way as to reveal the theme of paralysis that Joyce intended. The both characters that appeal to me are, Gabriel and his wife Gretta who are invited every year to a family gatheri ng by Gabriels two aunts on New Years eve. Gabriel, who is a university professor, does not insufficiency to be identified with Ireland. He wants to be identifies as a citizen of the world. His arrogance is revealed in his interaction with others. A primary example would be the way he treats his wife Gretta as an object. As Peter J. Rabinowitz informs one that in reader response criticism the ...activity of reading always alters the text at hand. Unless we are bound ourselves to reading in the sense of uninflected recitation, reading is never a passive activity to which the reader contributes nothing. In the reader res... ... Gabriel is paralyzed emotionally, as he does not know what is going to happen next. In conclusion the narrators attitude towards the events is perhaps how he wants the reader to interpret the events. The narrator perhaps wants to tell the reader despite all the tension at that time, the people in Dublin still want to forget the problem and enjoy at least on New Years Day where it can be with their loved ones to relax. Work Cited The Dead. Dir. John Houston. Perf. Anjelica Houston, Donal McCann. Bestron Pictures, 1987 Joyce, James. The Dead. Ed. Daniel R. Scwarz. Cornell University, 1994 Rabinowitz, Peter J. A Symbol of Something Interpretive Vertigo in The Dead. Ithaca Cornell UP, 1987 Scwarz, Daniel R., ed. The Dead. Cornell University, 1994
Tuesday, May 28, 2019
Karl Marx and His View on Religion Karl Marx, the fo under and main advocator of his Marxist philosophy, wrote the Communist pronunciamento in 1848. This document was the basis for all of his thoughts and ideas of the world at the time being. One of the major topics that he spoken on was how religion affected the parliamentary law and how it was an institution that was not actually necessary to exist. Marxist VS Religion Marx saw religion as an evil that existed in society and that it brought down all the concourse that believed in that religion. Marx said that, ?It religion is the opium of the people,?1 and in saying this, Marx meant that religion was contagious on society. Once the society had a taste for the religion, they became totally engulfed it in, and then they do not want to progress to out of that way of live because they see it as a good way to live. Then even if people wanted to get out of the religion it wa s hard to get out because the whole society had already been infected by the ?opium.? With the idea of equality of all people no matter what race or previous financial situation, the concept of a god was in complete opposition of the Marxist philosophy. ?Marx?s idea of divinity as a projection of alienated human beings whereby God becomes in rich proportion as humanity becomes poor.?2 Marx is criticizing society and their overall views of how religion should be treated. The society is letting God become the main focus of their lives, and since they are giving almost all their attention to God, they are becoming oblivious of the other members of the society and the relationships between each other. As society was becoming distracted by ... ...what they have in the natural life on earth. With everyone living under the regulations of Marx?s ?religion? no one would have to have another structure of life.Works Cited 1. David McLellan, Marxism and Religion a description and assessment of the Marxist retrospect of Christianity (New York Harper & Row, 1987), 13.2. McLellan, 5.3. McLellan, 167.4. Rev. John J. Ming, S.J., The Characteristics and the Religion of Modern Socialism, 2nd ed. (New York Benziger Brothers, 1908), 202.5. Ming, 96. Bohdan R. Bociurkiw and John W. Strong, Religion and Atheism in the U.S.S.R. and Eastern Europe (Toronto University of Toronto Press, 1975), 13. 7. Ming, 224. 8. Bociurkiw and Strong, 10.9. ?Marxism,? 2000, (28 October 2001), 1.10. McLellan, 159.
Karl Marx and His View on Religion Karl Marx, the founder and main counsellor of his redness philosophy, wrote the Communist Manifesto in 1848. This document was the basis for all of his thoughts and ideas of the world at the time being. One of the major topics that he spoken on was how religion affected the ordination and how it was an institution that was not actually necessary to exist. Marxist VS Religion Marx saw religion as an evil that existed in company and that it brought down all the people that believed in that religion. Marx said that, ?It religion is the opium of the people,?1 and in saying this, Marx meant that religion was contagious on society. Once the society had a taste for the religion, they became completely engulfed it in, and then they do not want to get out of that way of live because they see it as a good way to live. Then stock-still if people wanted to get out of the religion it was hard to g et out because the whole society had already been infected by the ?opium.? With the idea of comparison of all people no matter what race or previous financial situation, the concept of a god was in complete opposition of the Marxist philosophy. ?Marx?s idea of God as a projection of alienated human beings whereby God becomes in rich proportion as humanity becomes poor.?2 Marx is criticizing society and their overall views of how religion should be treated. The society is letting God become the main focus of their lives, and since they be giving almost all their attention to God, they are becoming oblivious of the other members of the society and the relationships between each other. As society was becoming distracted by ... ...what they have in the natural breeding on earth. With everyone living under the regulations of Marx?s ?religion? no one would have to have another structure of life.Works Cited 1. David McLellan, Marxism and Religion a comment a nd assessment of the Marxist critique of Christianity (New York Harper & Row, 1987), 13.2. McLellan, 5.3. McLellan, 167.4. Rev. John J. Ming, S.J., The Characteristics and the Religion of Modern Socialism, 2nd ed. (New York Benziger Brothers, 1908), 202.5. Ming, 96. Bohdan R. Bociurkiw and John W. Strong, Religion and Atheism in the U.S.S.R. and Eastern europium (Toronto University of Toronto Press, 1975), 13. 7. Ming, 224. 8. Bociurkiw and Strong, 10.9. ?Marxism,? 2000, (28 October 2001), 1.10. McLellan, 159.
Monday, May 27, 2019
junctures monologue in Act I Scene 2 is the first time that the reader fully conceives critical points character, his inner thoughts and opinions. The general tone of this soliloquy is very personal and emotional revealing settlements despair over the current spotlight and his depressing state of mind. It sets the stage for the rest of the story, being hamlets hatred of Claudius and resentment of his mother. Previous to this soliloquy we learn that King Hamlets brother, Claudius, has become the new powerfulness of Denmark by entering into an incestuous marriage with Queen Gertrude, the late kings wife.Claudius has made a grandiose, eloquent wrangle presenting him and his wife to the court, manipulating and distracting his audience from the abnormality of the situation. Hamlet, naturally still mourning his fathers death, is shocked by how quickly everyone has forgotten and refuses to play along with Claudius show. Hamlet interrupts the speech with snide, witty comments excha ngeable, a little more than kin and less than kind, addressing the unnatural relationship that him and Claudius now have. The King and Queen turn to Hamlet and win him to get over fathers death and to stay in Denmark under the pretense of loving him.When Hamlet again interrupts with spiteful words against both(prenominal) his mother and Claudius, Claudius publicly humiliates Hamlet by making a speech, highlighting the reasons why Hamlet can non be king. Instead of refuting Claudius, Hamlet becomes compliant to his mothers wishes and agrees to stay in Denmark. Shakespeare utilizes situational irony at this point in the story where once Hamlet is left alone we expect him to explode into anger, but instead he falls into a passive state of self-pitying. O, that this too, too sullied flesh would melt, thaw, and resolve itself into a dew. In this line Hamlet expresses his desire to commit self-annihilation which alerts the reader to his depressive state. The way in which he describes the act as melting also alerts us to his sedentary disposition, in that point the taking of ones own life is inactive. In the next line Hamlet informs us that he cannot commit suicide because of his religious views. Or that the Everlasting had not intractable his canon gainst self-slaughter Hamlets inability to commit a sin shows us that he has a high moral standing and an air of innocence.In this soliloquy Hamlet is deeply conflicted and unable to resolve to commit himself to a course of action as is seen through his cyclical thought process. Hamlet employs many allusions within this soliloquy to make a comparison between Hamlet Sr. and Claudius. Hamlet uses mythological characters to compare his father to Claudius saying that So excellent a king that was to this Hyperion to a satyr so loving to my mother that he might not beteem the winds of heaven visit her face to roughly. Hamlet believes that comparing his father to Claudius is like comparing Hyperion, the Titan God of Light to a half-man, half goat. Through this analogy we realize that Hamlet has a very idealized view of not only his father but also Hamlet Sr. and Gertrudes marriage. This builds in him a resentment of Gertrude for so easily moving on and an even greater hatred of Claudius for corrupting his mother. Hamlet then goes on to contrast his father and Claudius by comparing himself to Hercules, unintentionally associating himself with Claudius. My fathers brother, but no more like my father than I to Hercules. This line further shows the deterioration of Hamlets self-image. Hamlets first soliloquy helps the reader to understand the source of Hamlets action throughout the rest of the play. It introduces his self-destructive ways and tendency to refrain from acting. It also introduces a later recurrence of Hamlets deep disturbance of his mother and Claudius relationship.
Sunday, May 26, 2019
The objective of this paper is to highlight several(prenominal) of the important issues that must be considered preliminary to constituteing an trans guinea pigistic critical point profess. Why is this topic important? The weding quote summarizes the main reasonCross-border M&As, JVs and alliances seem to sh ar at least twain characteristics with marriage trends of the post World War II Baby Boomers generation They contribute grown explosively during the 1980s and through the 1990s but slight fortunately they fail about half the m.1With this in mind, it is very likely that sooner or later you will be involved in an internationalist reciprocal opine, either in the process of leaping one, dissolving one or working for one. The more you k at present about international correlative ventures, the better vigilant you will be to understand and contribute to the solution for the challenges they present.Most companies begin their expansion to overseas markets by exporting their products or services. Exporting products has minimal gamble involved, especially if the proper steps are followed. However, in some instances exporting is difficult or expensive and companies use other methods to penetrate international markets. Forming an international pin venture with a foreign firm in the target market is, in some baptistrys, the plainly avenue to accomplish the goal. An international voice venture is plebeianly a progression in the investment level that companies are willing to commit prior to fully investing in a foreign subsidiary. What is the main difference amid presenting a subsidiary and forming a say venture? match to Andrew Inkpen, a stick venture occurs when dickens or more legally distinct firms (the parents) pool a portion of their resources within a jointly owned legal organization2 The distribution of right among the parent companies can take divergent forms, ranging from 50/50 IJVs surrounded by two companies, to reduced minori ty or dominant bulk stakes.3 In contrast, only one comp some(prenominal) owns a subsidiary. Even though companies perceive IJV as less risky than opening their own subsidiaries, forming inadequate joint ventures can be risky and expensive. If passenger cars are not careful in their analysis andare not aware of the potential pitfalls of international joint ventures then they can human face some serious trouble.So far we have learned that culture plays a major role in vocation culture. Hence, culture will ultimately have a major impact in the international joint venture. Piero Morosini, one of the leading researchers in international joint ventures, explains the role culture plays in international joint ventures as followsEmpirical evidence suggests that technical issues are less likely to lead to conflicting functions analyzed to relationship problems during the implementation of international JVs and alliances. passim this phase, too much emphasis is usually placed on rounda boutting strategic objectives at the cost of ignoring personal interaction aspects involving people from different national cultures. This has been cited as the most critical factor leading to unresolved conflicts and outright failure of an international JV or alliance.4Companies some times enter into joint ventures with objectives other than to gain rapid entrance into the market. Some companies want to learn from other companies or like to combine resources in order to make a stronger company. The need to combine strategic resource contributions and foster functional co-operation and co-ordination among the partners to create mutual advantages is at the heart of both IJVs and global alliances.5 As you larn this paper, you will learn that most of the failures in joint ventures occurs due to the misunderstanding in the goals and the definition of the goals. Finnie volitioniams states that half of all partnerships dont work. Those that are boffo share three characteristics with happy marriages The actual and perceived potential benefits must be large for both parties. The partners must share a common set of values The underlying people must be committed to success.6It seems that the most important aspect when speaking of international joint ventures, is that partners must share a common set of values. This is veryunlikely to happen. The main reasons cultures are different is because they have different sets of values. For instance, some companies define success in equipment casualty of fork out on investment, others use market share, yet others define it in terms of customer satisfaction. These differences are critical and must be discussed early in the mean stage in order to lay a solid foundation for the partnership. It is important to keep in mind that even companies from the same cultural and business background have different plans to achieve their goals. Therefore, whenever we mix companies with different cultural backgrounds, the complexity l evel increases. People from different cultures perceive business in different ways.The rest of this paper leave alones examples of international joint ventures in different countries and examines some of the general observations related to such(prenominal)(prenominal) ventures and countries.mainland chinaForeign investment in 1995 was $US38 gazillion ( china Statistical Press 1996). International Joint ventures (IJVs) between overseas companies and domestic state-owned enterprises (SOEs) have been the dominant mode of entry. However, many JV investments have been less than boffo.7 China is now the worlds most active joint venture market. 8 These facts are not surprising as China is home to 25 percentage of the worlds population and many western firms view the country as a prime target market.9 However, as we will discuss, not everyone venturing in China has been successful. For instance, a group of French investors dissolved their joint venture in China later on 12 yrs of inv estment. The agreement was primarily between Peugeot and Guangzhou Automotive Manufacturing (GAM). It took four years of negotiations between French and Chinese investors to form the joint venture Guangzhou Peugeot Automobile Corporation (GPAC) in 1985. Following are some of the major problems that Peugeot mentioned as key elements to the failure of their venture in China The labor force from the Chinese partner had inadequate skills, which resulted in more time and money spent in training. Lack of suppliers inthe Guangzhou area that could provide quality pliberal arts. As a consequence many of the parts had to be trade which raised the cost of the vehicles as compared to the competition. Guangzhou officials would not allow the plant to purchase parts from suppliers from other regions in China. Competitors who were located in other Chinese regions had access to quality Chinese parts and were able to build vehicles at lower prices.There is another side to this story, analysts beli eve that Peugeot chose the Guangzhou area because the central government had brusk influence over the topical anaesthetic government and there would be more management freedom. However, this backfired on Peugeot as the distance from Beijing acted as a bulwark to access suppliers from other regions. Peugeot did not act fast enough to form a joint venture with a supplier in the Guangzhou region. Their competitors had organize such partnerships with their suppliers. Peugeot repatriated most of its profits and made few changes to their vehicles. Their competitors instead, reinvested most of the profits in the venture and to improve the vehicles. 10I think there are several lessons to be learned from this example. One is that it takes a long time to agree on the terms of the agreement. Second is that even though both partners had agreed on the goals, out of the blue(predicate) deficiencies (labor and parts) put the company at a disadvantage with its competitors. It is amazing th at after four years of negotiations, nobody checked if the skill sets were compatible and if the local suppliers could provide quality parts.Third is that even when companies believe that they are making the correct strategic move they could be doing the opposite due to lack of knowledge of the local culture. In this case, Peugeot was under the impression that distance from Beijing would be positive and in fact it turned out negative. Finally, companies that want to use joint ventures as means to have a quick entry into the market can get hurt. In this case, Peugeot was not committed to re-investing metropolis in the joint venture, which at the end made them completely uncompetitive in the market.You might be wondering who was the competitor to Peugeot that was being so successful in China. That competitor was excessively a joint venture. This timeit was between a German company, Volkswagen AG, and a Chinese partner in the Shanghai area. As mentioned before, Shanghai Volkswagen wa s quick to form partnerships with suppliers to increase the content of Chinese parts in their vehicles and reduce the number of imported parts. Another important aspect is the fact that Shanghai Volkswagen was reinvesting their profits in order to improve their vehicles. Such improvements plus their commitment to the Chinese economy, allowed Shanghai Volkswagen to earn a better reputation among customers.11Another major corporation that has been successful in forming joint ventures in China is United Parcel Service. UPS has been aggressively expanding its operations there. On Jan. 21 1999, the company announced an agreement with Chinese airway Sinotrans to expand UPS-branded operations to 18 additional cities in China, bringing the total to 21. The two carriers signed a memorandum of understanding that includes new investments to develop apply operations and more joint training and management efforts. In 1994, UPS opened representative daubs in Shanghai, Guangzhou and Beijing, an d by 1996 established a joint venture with Sinotrans in Beijing. Efforts to establish joint ventures in Shanghai and Guangzhou were temporarily put on hold with a change in government leadership.12These examples provide us with some useful information regarding joint ventures in China. However, there are some other facts that you must know Laws governing international joint ventures in China are different than the laws for Chinese firms. Laws may also be different depending on whether the Chinese partner is a state business, village or town enterprise. Chinas legal system consists of guidelines for businesses and individual judges have enough leeway to determine what is right and what is wrong. Provincial regions can prohibit the bargain of goods not produced on its own region. (this was the case with Peugeot suppliers). The need for government support is greater when the output of the joint venture is sold within China The local partner is critical when the output must be so ld to the government instead of the general public. 13A survey of 125 randomly chosen Sino-Western joint ventures, each with a minimum of 50 employees, and each in business for over one year, were surveyed in Shanghai. They surveyed mangers from both parent companies in order to compare results and the results were as follows The goal emphasis of the two groups was substantially different. Chinese managers focalisationed on things that they had not yet mastered such as technology, management skills, and capital understanding. Western managers focused on their own things to be mastered such as understanding the local market, government policy and the political system. 14JapanThe speckle in Japan is mixed. While some researchers point that there are some major problems in forming international joint ventures, large multinationals have formed very successful joint ventures and the announcements of more and more joint ventures being formed continues. On one hand is the view that int ernational joint ventures between Japanese and North American firms in the automotive industry have encountered many problems. Most of the problems are related to cultural differences and management styles. Although it is overly simple to describe Japanese management as long-term oriented and American management as short-term oriented, the Japanese partner firms in this study appeared to focus on customer satisfaction and product quality rather than profit based performance. Japanese firms seemed less constrained by issues of share price and impatient board of directors than their American counterparts.15On the other hand is the trend of new joint ventures being formed or existing ones being expanded, Goodyear Tire & rubber Co. and Sumitomo Rubber Industries announced the formation of four joint venture operating companies. The units will be based in North America, Europe, and Japan. Two U.S.-based service joint ventures will also be formed, one for global purchasing and one for sharing tire technology.16 This agreement between Goodyear and Sumitomo reflects some experience in forming joint ventures as they have clearly defined the goals of the different joint ventures. Thisjoint venture seems to be headed in the right direction, it will be interesting to follow up in a few years to see if they actually become successful.Dainippon Ink and Chemicals (DIC) and Eastman Kodak say they will combine portions of their Japanese graphic arts businesses in April to make a Japanese unit for their existing JV, Kodak Polychrome Graphics (Norwalk, CT). The combination will increase the JVs sales from $1.5 billion last year to $2 billion in 1999, Kodak says.17 Kodak seems to be having success in their joint ventures with Japanese companies as they are expanding their current joint venture.Dupont and Teijin announced that they will form a 50-50 joint venture to manufacture polyester films. The joint venture is expected to generate sales of $1.4 billion and represent 25% of the market. Both companies say the venture will allow for the free flow of technology and will combine DuPonts strengths in the U.S., Europe, and China with Teijins strengths in Japan and Southeast Asia. 18 formerly again, it seems that companies that invest time and effort analyzing and understanding the challenges of joint ventures get on the right steer from the start. Companies that just want to do business as usual (the case in the automotive industry) will have a hard time making the joint venture successful.SPAINSpain has seen less activity in terms of joint ventures than Japan and China. It seems that Spain is not perceived as risky country and most companies might be willing to spring into fully owned subsidiaries in Spain. Also, the barrier to enter the market might not be as high as in the case of the Japanese market. However, in some industries, such as the financial services industry, there is a need for joint ventures to penetrate the market. Spanish people look for names of familiar companies to invest their money.According to a London fund manager interested in the Spanish market,The easiest way to break into the market is through joint ventures with local banks but there are not many suitable partners. We have looked near a few banks but we havent been able to come up with a deal we like the look of.19 There is one company that has formed a joint venture with a Fibanc in Barcelona, Lazard Unit Trust Managers. Although, the majority of the investment firms have decided to just open their own branches in Spain. Fidelitys managing director for central Europe believes that Spain has a big population, around 40 million so in terms of sheer size it is very attractive.Its one of the markets we have to be in. Fidelity opened its office in Madrid this year and has put a sales team in place. We are aiming at creating our own distribution channel rather than any other form of strategic alliance or joint venture20 It will be interesting to observe whic h of the two firms becomes more successful granted the different approaches to penetrate the Spanish market.Another recent joint venture in Spain is Spanair. Formed between Scandinavian Airlines (49%) and Viajes Marsan (51%). Due to the recent deregulation of the European airline industry, the two companies were able to establish the airline as a joint venture. Spanair is flying direct from Madrid to Washington D.C. and it is increasing the number of intra-Europe flights. Spanair is now trying to form alliances with United Airlines to gain market recognition in the United States.Spanair has a different approach to marketing, they consider themselves an airline with humor, in fact, they gave away 266 round trip tickets to the first 266 people to arrive at the airport wearing some type of costume resembling some aspect of the Spanish culture.21 Although, it seems that this airline has had a great start, it will be interesting to find out how they do in the future, as the Spanish cult ure seems to be play a mayor role in the way the airline is run. I think that if Scandinavian Airlines is fully aware of the differences in management style between them and their Spanish partners, this joint venture should successful.RussiaPrior to 1987, Russia had major restrictions in the formation of jointventures. Only Eastern Block countries were allowed to form joint ventures with Russian partners. However, after 1987 the opportunity for joint ventures with Russian companies opened up and the result was a flood of joint ventures along with problems, risks, frustrations, opportunities and rewards.22 The following quote summarizes the joint venture situation in RussiaAlthough more than 10,000 international joint ventures have been registered in Russia since 1987, only about one-fifth of those have actually begun operations. Historically, many Russian-foreign joint ventures fail in the first year of operation, with an average survival rate of about 2.5 years. 23Richard Reece ha s identified some myths about Russians, which he believes are key elements in the failure track of international joint ventures in Russia. Following is a summary of these myths and his observations regarding the myths and suggestions to consider when forming a joint venture in Russia.1. Russian workers are alcoholics and have an deficient work ethic. Alcoholic consumption might be higher, there is no certainty in this remark, however, Russian workers are used to longer vacations in the pass time and this can create the impression that Russians are lazy. His suggestion is to learn more about the Russian habits and styles prior to committing to a joint venture and have unrealistic expectations.2. Russians are ignorant, incompetent managers. It is important to remember that Russians are learning about the market economy. For many years they have not been exposed to open markets, so they are less familiar with issues such as pricing, receivables, cost analysis, financing, cash flow, a nd marketing. It is important to remember that this is one of the major reasons why Russians are spirit for partnerships with western companies. Russians are eager to learn more about the western style economics. The best way to find out the knowledge level is money box interviews with potential partners.3. Russian managers lack business savvy. This myth has some truth in it, however, the fact that the Russian economy is unstable, has given managers the ability to react chop-chop to changes and adapt to the conditions of the new environment. In fact it is important to understand that not all western style solutions will work in Russia and Russian manager are more familiar with the details on how to get things done in Russia.Richard Reece makes particular emphasis in communication as a key ingredient to a successful joint venture in Russia. If potential partners do not learn about each other, how can they expect the venture to be successful.General Guidelines to Select a Partner.I n general regardless of the countries involved, William Myers offers the following guidelines to select an adequate business partner Is your prospective partner a known entity? Have you worked with the group before? Do the organizations culture and values match yours? Does your prospective partner understand how associations work? Will the organization be flexible in crafting workable deals? Can your prospective partner clearly define success in the joint venture? Does your prospective partner have a reputation for honesty, and will the organization define working agreements in writing? 24 Answers to these questions will give you a general opinion on whether to proceed with the venture, do more in depth analysis or apparently not go through with the process.ConclusionThis paper presented examples of successful and unsuccessful joint ventures. It also highlighted important information regarding key aspects of joint ventures in different countries. Joint ventures are still popula r and international companies are creating more every day. Therefore, the knowledge from this paper should assist you to better understand the challenges associated with most joint ventures. A topic that was consistentthroughout the literature on joint ventures is the importance of cultural differences, patience and the comparison of joint ventures to marriage. Therefore, if you have been married for a while, you might be better prepared for a joint venture than you think.Another interesting observation is that joint ventures seem to be preferred when there are market barriers, such as the case with Japan, or when the perceived risk level is relatively high, such as Russia and China. The fact that there was scarce information on joint ventures between companies of developed nations indicates that joint ventures are not the main avenue of expansion for most firms. This does not imply that they do not happen or that are not recommended, it simply states that they are far less popular. Companies are more willing to establish their own subsidiaries or branches since the risk level is lower. If you are involved in a joint venture, use the guidelines presented in this paper. The authors who recommend them have been studying international joint ventures for several years and have learned a lot from them. 1 Morosini, Piero.1998. Managing heathenish Differences, Pergamon Great Britain. 2 Inkpen, Andrew. 1995. The management of international joint ventures, Routledge London and New York. 3 Morosini, Piero.1998. Managing Cultural Differences, Pergamon Great Britain. 4 Morosini, Piero.1998. Managing Cultural Differences, Pergamon Great Britain. 5 Morosini, Piero.1998. Managing Cultural Differences, Pergamon Great Britain 6 Finnie, William C. 1998. Strategic partnering Three case studies. Strategy and leadership, 26 (4) 18-22. 7 O Connor, Neal & Chalos, Peter. 1999.The challenge for successful joint venture management in China Lessons from a failed joint venture Multinati onal stock Review, 7 (1) 50-61. 8 Si, Steven & Bruton, Gary. 1999. Knowledge transfer in international joint ventures in transitional economies The China experience. Academy of Management Executive, 13 (1) 83-90. 9 Si, Steven & Bruton, Gary. 1999. Knowledge transfer in international joint ventures in transitional economies The China experience. Academy of Management Executive, 13 (1) 83-90. 10 Harwit, Eric. 1997. Guangzhou Peugeot Portrait of a commercial divorce.China Business Review, 24(6) 10-11. 11 Harwit, Eric. 1997. Guangzhou Peugeot Portrait of a commercial divorce. China Business Review, 24(6) 10-11 12 Traffic World 1999 UPSs big stake in China talks. Feb 8 37. 13 Si, Steven & Bruton, Gary. 1999. Knowledge transfer in international joint ventures in transitional economies The China experience. Academy of Management Executive, 13 (1) 83-90. 14 Si, Steven & Bruton, Gary. 1999. Knowledge transfer in international joint ventures in transitional economies The China experience. Ac ademy of Management Executive, 13 (1) 83-90. 15 Inkpen, Andrew. 1995. The management of international joint ventures, Routledge London and New York. 16 Fleet owner. 1999. Goodyear, Sumitomo deal. March 16.17 Moore, Samuel K. 1999. Kodak and DIC develop another JV. Chemical Week, 161 (8) 22. 18 Westerlvelt, Robert. 1999. Dupont and Teijin take a joint role in films. Chemical Week, 161 (6) 19. 19 Marshall, Julian. 1998 / 1999. Retail Pioneers will gain in Spain. 118 56. 20 Marshall, Julian. 1998 / 1999. Retail Pioneers will gain in Spain. 118 56. 21 Guttman, Robert J. 1998. Spanair The skys the limit. Europe, 38016-17. 22 Reece, Richard. 1998. happy joint ventures in Russia. World Trade, 11 (8) 42-44. 23 Reece, Richard. 1998. Successful joint ventures in Russia. World Trade, 11 (8) 42-44. 24 Myers, William. 1998. Picking your partners wisely. Association Management, 50 (10) 31.
Saturday, May 25, 2019
In addition to the usual media (television, radio, and newspaper) for aintained an extensive advertising campaign, the company makes substantial use of billboards and signage, sponsors sporting events ranging from Little League to the Olympic Games. B. Training Topic/Area Our training topic is about how to beat a good coach. We willing identify the coaching skill and give some demonstration to manager trainees. In this training posing, we will aim to concentrate on on four principal(prenominal) areas.First is Introduction, it would include the company background, objective, mission and the importance of coaching. Second is the concern of how to be a good coaching which includes the coaching skill, conflict cenario preference and resolution. Third is the session for discussing of the conflict scenario such as the advantage and disadvantage. Final one is the role play, short session for presenting and correcting the coaching conflict scenario which watched before. C. Target Traine es Our target trainees are focus on the restaurant manager in all McDonald in Hong Kong.As most of them are newer to this level, therefore this training washbasin provide the opportunity to them to get a well understanding of their line of products duties. D. Lesson objective Manager Trainees should be able to equip the effective coaching skills. We hope that t can identify the unparalleled leadership skill which is a healthy, positive and enabling process that transforms people to higher levels of competence. Furthermore, the coaching course can let the McDonalds manager trainees understand how to become a good coaching through the role play section and demonstration.In addition, the most important objective should understand the importance of mentoring in maximizing the aggroup performance. E. Lesson plan Subject train (McDonald) Date Time 4th March,2013, 1630-1730 Venue Room 309 Lesson How to become a good coaching. Coach Han Chow, Adam Ku, Katie Lee, Kevin La, Simon Lam Ob jectives later this lesson, 16 Manager Trainees should be able to To equip the To understand how to become a good coaching To understand the importance of mentoring in maximizing the team up performance.Topics Important points Method Media/ Materials Time Venue Trainer Introduction Company background, Objective and mission, Importance of coaching PowerPoint 3Mtn 309 Kevin How to become a good coaching Coaching Skill, Conflict Scenario Preference and Resolution PowerPoint + Video PowerPoint Nga Han Role Play Good Coaching Scenario 8Mtn Adam + Katie Discussion of scenario Advantage and Disadvantage of coaching scenario 6Mtn Simon F. Supplementary tuition Role play scenario McDonald manager always give some support to provide no matter staff cannot do the cut across well in the deadline.He will listen the reasons why the staff cannot do well instead of punish his staff. M= McDonalds Manager, S= McDonalds Staff (Aside Mr. Ku is a manager of McDonald. Katie is a McDonalds staff. wh oleness day, Mr. Ku MHi, katie, we decide you to be the holder of Mcdonload birthday party and write a report after this program, 0k? S Sure. I am 0k. mr. ku. When do I need to complete the report and program? M I am sure you will be able to do well in this program. You can complete it within one week. This book can give you some reference for your program.It is included some useful information and teach you how to do the program well. Hope it can abet you. S Thank you so much. Mr. Ku. I wont make you disappointed. (Aside After 7 days, Katie finishes the report on time and pass by in to Mr. Ku. ) SMr ku. this is my McDonald party report. MOk, let me check this. Did you find any problem in doing this report? Did the book give you some nous on doing the project? S yes, I do. MYou always give us surprise, tho this time, its should not your usual performance, ou look tired, Is the working pressure likewise high or separate thing influence you ?S I am sorry that I could not do a perfect Job and have many mistakes in the report . lam afraid that i need more time to do it M As I turn in you always are the good employee, i believe something make you fail. Fortunately this project is not urgent, i can give you more 4 days, nevertheless your problems do not solve that still affect the program, can you tell me? Maybe i can help you. S My dad get ill now, i am really worry about his physical condition and my dad state, I often cannot fall asleep at night. Also, need to go to hospital everyday, I really eel I cant sustain. For this program, I really want to do it better.M Oh , i am sorry for that, No wonder you give me the report in your tensity, bestiring up, all things will be allright. do you want the leave to take care your father? SThanks a lot but I hope I follow my Jobs till the end, will be responsible for this program I dont want to see other one negociate my Jobs. M I trust your ability and you can perform a good show, besides the time, what can i hel p you more? Like groom a assistant for reducing your workload? SThank you for your support and accept my mistakes. That is a good idea, I hope he an help me continue the daily operation when I go to the hospital. epartment ssure M Good. In fact, everyone will face the difficult time, next time if you need help dont hide the problem that make more worst, try to talk to person who can help you, i believe they can solving the problem for you like this time. Remember, communcation is most important in a team. S I got it MGood I really expect your prefect program in the future. (Aside After this matter, other staff members were surprise of Mr. Ku attitude and think that he is a good manager. He willing to understand his staff and accept mistakes so motivate staff to do better.
Friday, May 24, 2019
.3 SCOPE OF THE STUDY The scope of the study in this investigate is to identify the relationship between bloodline satisfaction and employee abrasion in PETRONAS Carigali Sdn Bhd (PCSB), which focuses on the technical job areas employees. This research will also cover on the factors of job satisfaction, which are the push, the pull, as well as the personal factors. There have been numerous studies regarding job satisfaction and attrition intentions worldwide and the results are repeatedly found to be the same, negatively related to be exact.Dessler (197837) refers to job satisfaction, as the degree of needs satisfaction that is derived from and or experienced on the job?. He affirms to the ability of employees in an organization aspirations, feeling happy doing their job with the hope that their needs will be achieved. Job satisfaction reflects employees feelings regarding their work and has been found to imply many operations within the organization. If the level of satisfaction is low, the impact on the companys operation as a whole might be negative and vice versa.In contrast, when employees level of satisfaction is high, they are willing to fully utilize their effort for the sake of the organization. It is definitely increases the employees interests and instilled their work motivation that lead to a stronger-tighter bond between the employee and the organization. When these two significant facets becomes one, the intentions to leave can be decreases (Boles et al. , 1997). Motivated employees are productive, happy and committed.The spin off of this includes reduced employee attrition intentions, increased employees loyalty and workplace harmony. The intention to quit oneself job is developed from conscious and rational decision the employee make to leave the organization. Alternatively, the employee does not leave the job instantly but the intention to leave is formed gradually and the person tries to leave following a deep consideration and finding new job-opportunities elsewhere.
Thursday, May 23, 2019
CHAPTER 1 Introduction Life is nothing but full of uncertain endeavours most who are blessed may not stay as wealthy while some have none are not for good subjected to nothing. People make their own destiny with the decisions they make, their life progresses with the discipline they uphold and wisdom they strive to incur but most of all with the faith they recognise out for the rest of their lives. Take for example some of the famous actors such as Isco Moreno, Erap Estrada, Lito Lapid and etc. they are those who are born marginalized but with such motion they have achieved their goals and have become some of the few influential people in the country. In the University of St. La Salle, it is not unknown to us that the give instruction extend its overwhelming comportment to reach out to those who are in need and eager enough to finish ones education. Some of the services that the school is offering are categorized tuition, academic scholarship, and working savant assistanc e scholarship.These programs have touched, transformed, and helped a lot of students for the duration of their college lives. Miss Praulaine Kay Beatingo Garcia, 20 years old, is a graduate of Commerce of Hospitality Management in the said University. Miss Garcia is the eldest in the family, and because of some difficulties she enrolled herself and offered her services as a working student in the HSC AVRC of the University of St. La Salle for 5 years. Endowed with such qualities and knowledge she graduated March 2013 as a Magna Cum Laude.Moreover, others such as, Cheryl Canja, Regine Agapin, Anne Genevieve Navales, Kevin Clyde Ong, Dick Ruselle Hofilena, are some of the few whom enjoyed the privileges of being a full time scholar under the working student assistant program. Being a working student is not a joke, there are many problems that a student may undergo in terms of his/her work, time management, school activities, school requirement, and etc. because of the presence of the se problems the students uses several coping strategies for him/her to be able to surpass the demands of his/her environments.Thus, the study aims to find out the most common problems and what are the coping strategies of working students of the University of St. La Salle. report of the Problem Scope and Limitation The study primarily focuses on determining the common problems and coping strategies of working students enrolled for Summer 2013 of the University of St. La Salle, Bacolod City. The availability of time positively charged the loads of other tasks and responsibilities carried by the students were among the restrictions covered in this study.Also, given that a survey lead be performed, the participants might not take it seriously and for this reason, will have minimal effect on the accuracy of the results. Significance of the Study Working Students. The study may provide the working students a level of reason on the problems that other working students encounter and th e coping strategies that they utilize. A feeling of acceptance and common bond with others who are going through the same difficulties may be established with the working students and learning from others experiences.Teachers. Familiarity of the study would benefit the teachers through having an adequate knowledge of what they can do to facilitate the needs of working students. They could as well integrate classroom-based activities that could help in coping up the difficulties of these students. School. The school can moreover benefit from this study in a way the administrators may progress school programs. The school could propose new programs that would be able to attend to the needs of these students particularly assisting them with the common problems they encounter.Through this study, the school could as a subject of fact implement programs geared towards the improvement and enhancement of working students Others. The coping strategies discussed in this study may influence an d help others, not only working students, deal with problems that they encounter in school, at home or anywhere else in their lives. Definition of Terms Working Students. Coping Strategies. Problems. Frequency. Extent.
Wednesday, May 22, 2019
The first of the three I am going to discuss is Tesco. Tesco have become a very large dwelling name over the past 50yrs. When the profits was introduced to the world Tesco was one of the first supermarkets to put a website up. They put images of products on the website and showed everyone their product range. In doing this, their sales went up and they were, yet again, becoming an even larger company worldwide. Seeing that they were able to expand on the web, Tesco made it possible to apply for a membership measure online, which proved to be a great success for them.Tesco saw this as a way to get to know their market and made sure that they provided the products throng wanted. Also it gave Tesco the image of good Customer Relationships, which was, and still is, a big thing for any major company. As the years went by they brought the idea of online obtain to life. It means that people were able to purchase goods without having to leave the house. You could choose all products the y desired and have them delivered to your house.The only catch to the purchases is that you have to pay for the products online with a quote card, which some people atomic number 18 reluctant to do in case someone else gets hold of the details. Since Tesco had grown so much they also started to advertise jobs on the website for different areas of the world. They have a link on the site, which takes you to whichever country you are in the world. Say for example I chose the English site. It would decease me a list of counties then a list of all the Tesco supermarkets in that county. After going through this process it gives a list of job possibilities.This is the dwelling page of the Tesco website. All their products are broken down into categories and then into sub categories that helps you find the shopping you need. If unable to find a specific product or service the website has a hunting button which enables you to locate what you are looking for. I believe that Tesco made th e right decision when putting this site onto the Internet and that they have successfully become the leading supermarket in their Market. Barclays Among others Barclays bank has been one of the longest running banks we know.Even before designing a website they were very common and have always been that, and in making their website this image has been upheld. Creating a website meant many possibilities for Barclays. It meant that people could look at all the sources of finance procurable to them if they were starting up a parentage, loans if they are in need of one, mortgage rates, etc. I managed to find a barrack release from Barclays website that I think represents how much they are looking out for their customers demands on the net by giving them information about upcoming events that they are holding.The press release is shown below. Barclays has developed a brand-new seminar to help small business owners and managers to boost their sales and trade power. From April 19 unti l June 29 the bank will be running a programme of 22 seminars across the country Bright Marketing for Smarter Business. Barclays research shows that entrepreneurs want to increase the beat they currently spend on business development and marketing activity by at least 50% to 12 hours per week.Developing new business ideas and finding new customers are essential for any business and attendees of the seminar will receive a wealth of information, tips and advice on everything from differentiating themselves from competitors through to better understanding customers and how best to attract them. Alison Hopkins, Managing Director of Small Business at Barclays express Good marketing can be the key to success. It is vital to be able to identify and meet the real needs of customers, whilst at the same time remaining profitable.The Bright Marketing seminars provide valuable advice to help small businesses continue to succeed and grow. The seminars have been developed by Barclays and is be ing delivered by leading business and marketing guru, Robert Craven. Robert is author of Kick-start Your Business and Customer is King. He is also managing director of The Directors Centre, has run his own restaurant, sound recording studio apartment and training company and was formerly head of small business programmes at Warwick Business School. The seminar is free of charge and is open to all small businesses whether they are Barclays customers or not.Businesses who wish to attend Barclays Bright Marketing for Smarter Business can book online by visiting www. business. barclays. co. uk/bb/seminars or call 0800 028 4002. By allowing the public view press releases on the Barclays website it gives customers an idea of what Barclays are doing with their time and how they try to help everyone they can. Not only has Barclays accumulated a lot of information for their website, they have shown their customers, and potential customers, what is available to them when they bank with Barcla ys.Below is an image of the home page of the website. On the front page of their website Barclays have included a long list of options, into which you can search through their site to find what you are looking for. So in this instance of Barclays I believe that they have been very triumphant in producing this website for the public. Warner Bros Being one of the largest production companies of films and T. V shows, it is obvious that Warner Bros would have a website.
Tuesday, May 21, 2019
Wilfred Owens Anthem for a Doomed Youth is exactly that, an anthem ( a solemn song) to commemorate the innocent youth, whose lives were taken to soon by war. By using the give voice anthem, he calls to mind the glory and honor of a national anthem, however he goes on to explain that in that respect is no honor or glory in death, pairing the words doomed and youth together creates so much sorrow as well, it provides a creaky impression as it foretells of young tidy sum having no hope. Written in sonnet form, it is an elegy for the dead.The octave deals with auditory images of war and death and the sestet deals with more(prenominal) visual images. Wilfred Owen masterfully uses both imagery and figurative language to convey his lament for these young people who died. In the octet of this poem (the first octet painss), Owen catalogues all the images of death, such as passing bells, anger of the guns, rattle of guns, funeral prayers, ululate shells, bugles and sad shires. Many of these images are personified as well, such as the rattling guns and wailing shells.These images will be the funeral that the boys get, not the real one that they deserve. This personification contri thoes to the harshness of the images and creates auditory images for the reader. The reader can hear the sensory images. However, these images are also solidification directly against religious imagery, to further emphasize the devastatingness of war. The passing bells, prayers, choirs, and candles emphasize the preciousness of human life. Owen may go so far as to suggest that withal religion is helpless against such a powerful destructive force as war.This tone is suggested by the fact that prayers and bells are set against a word like mockery. Just the term hasty orisons has a somewhat disrespectful tone. Owens use of both similes and metaphors further emphasize the meaning of the poem. The first line jolts the reader with the simile that these young people die as cattle. The descr iption depicts multitudes of people being slaughtered and the nature of war to be full of aggregated deaths. The similes showing how the soldiers are no more important than cattle which are lead to the slaughter without feeling.Owen gives the sonnet a powerful, negative connotation from the very beginning. He implies with this phrase a dehumanization of the soldiers as well as the fact that war causes human beings to treat each other as less than human. In line three, the reader can hear the sound imagery of the stuttering rifles rapid rattle. The word anger in line 2 also emphasizes the destructive hatred of war. Choirs of wailing shells is a powerful metaphor in line 7 contrasting the world of war and the world of God. For the rest of the poem diverse religious images abound.For example, the word candles would call to mind the church building candles, but they also mean the candles lit in rooms where coffins lie. Holy glimmers of goodbyes (line 9) combines religious imagery with the whim of death. In the pallor half rhyme of line 11, these two words combine in one line to show the seriousness of the situation. Young people are dying in war, and it is tragic. The flowers of line 11 are also a double-edged sword. Flowers are given on very happy, momentous occasions, but they are also in abundance at solemn occasions like funerals.Furthermore, Owen compares the events of war to traditional burial rituals and describes how those who die in war do not receive proper funerals. In the first stanza, Owen references the monstrous anger of guns to passing-bells and rifles rapid rattle to hasty orisons. Usually at funerals or ceremonies for the dead there are bells ringing and prayers being said, but Owen shows that in war there are only the sounds of guns being fired. In war, instead of honoring those who have fallen, more are being killed by the same weapons.The last line in the sonnet remains the most powerful in re-affirming the themes and images of death in thi s poem. The pin is slow and the drawing-down of the blinds signifies the ultimate death. The use of a traditional form like a sonnet only serves to emphasize the seriousness of the subject. Wilfred Owen masterfully juxtaposes images of war and church in holy order to emphasize the solemnity of the death these boys had faced. He uses metaphor and simile as well as auditory and visual images in order to allow the reader to truly experience what these boys faced in death. Maddi Cameron-Clarke
Monday, May 20, 2019
Afri keister American culture in the United States includes the various social traditions of African cultural groups. It is both position of and distinct from American culture. The U. S. numerate Bureau defines African Americans as raft having origins in any(prenominal) of the down(p) race groups of Africa. 1 African American culture is indigenous to the descendants in the U. S. of survivors of the Middle Passage. It is rooted in Africa and is an amalgam of chiefly sub-Saharan African and Sahelean cultures.Although sla truly greatly restricted the ability of Africans in America to normal their cultural traditions, umteen practices, values and article of beliefs survived and over time have incorporated elements of European American culture. There argon notwithstanding certain facets of African American culture that were brought into being or do more prominent as a answer of sla rattling an example of this is how drumming became utilise as a means of communion and esta blishing a community identity during that time. The result is a dynamic, creative culture that has had and continues to have a sound wallop on mainstream American culture and on world culture as well.After Emancipation, these unequivocally African American traditions continued to grow. They certain into distinctive traditions in music, finesse, literature, morality, food, holi days, amongst other(prenominal)s. While for approximately time sociologists, much(prenominal) as Gunnar Myrdal and Patrick Moynihan, believed that African Americans had lost roughly cultural ties with Africa, anthropological field research by Melville Hersovits and others show that there is a continuum of African traditions among Africans in the clean World from the West Indies to the United States.The greatest enchant of African cultural practices on European cultures is form below the Mason-Dixon in the southeastern United States, peculiarly in the Carolinas among the Gullah people and in Louis iana. African American culture a lot certain separately from mainstream American culture because of African Americans desire to practice their own traditions, as well as the persistence of racial segregation in America. Consequently African American culture has become a significant p ruse of American culture and yet, at the same time, remains a distinct culture apart from it. archivesFrom the earliest days of hard workerry, slave owners sought to exercise control over their slaves by attempting to strip them of their African culture. The physical isolation and societal marginalization of African slaves and, subsequent, of their free progeny, however, actually facilitated the retention of significant elements of tralatitious culture among Africans in the New World generally, and in the U. S. in particular. Slave owners deliberately tried to thin political organization in order to deal with the many slave rebellions that overlyk place in the southerly United States, Brazil, Ha iti, and the Dutch Guyanas.African cultures,slavery,slave rebellions,and the civil rights movements(circa 1800s-160s)have shaped African American religious, familial, political and economic behaviors. The spring of Africa is unmistakable in myriad ways, in politics, economics, manner of speaking, music, hairstyles, fashion, trip the light fantastic, religion and worldview, and food preparation methods. In the United States, the very legislation that was designed to strip slaves of culture and deny them education served in many ways to build up it.In turn, African American culture has had a pervasive, trans divisionative impact on myriad elements of mainstream American culture, among them language, music, dance, religion, cuisine, and agriculture. This expandage of mutual creative exchange is called creolization. Over time, the culture of African slaves and their descendants has been ubiquitous in its impact on not only the dominant American culture, but on world culture as we ll. Oral tradition Slaveholders limited or prohibited education of enslaved African Americans because they believed it might lead to revolts or escape plans.Hence, African-based literal traditions became the direct means of preserving archives, m oral examinations, and other cultural in diversityation among the people. This was consistent with the griot practices of oral history in many African and other cultures that did not rely on the written word. nigh(prenominal) of these cultural elements have been passed from generation to generation finished storytelling. The folktales provided African Americans the opportunity to inspire and educate one another. Examples of African American folktales include trickster tales of Brer Rabbit and heroic tales such(prenominal) as that of buns hydrogen. The Uncle Remus stories by Joel Chandler Harris helped to bring African American folk tales into mainstream adoption. Harris did not appreciate the complexity of the stories nor their poten tial for a lasting impact on society. Characteristics of the African American oral tradition present themselves in a number of forms. African American preachers tend to perform rather than simply speak. The emotion of the subject is carried through the speakers tone, volume, and movement, which tend to mirror the rising action, climax, and descending action of the sermon.Often song, dance, verse and integrated pauses are placed throughout the sermon. Techniques such as call-and-response are used to bring the audience into the presentation. In direct contrast to recent tradition in other American and westbound cultures, it is an acceptable and commons audience reaction to interrupt and affirm the speaker. Spoken word is another example of how the African American oral tradition influences modern American popular culture. Spoken word artists employ the same techniques as African American preachers including movement, rhythm, and audience participation.Rap music from the 1980s and b eyond has been seen as an extension of oral culture. Harlem Renaissance pic Zora Neale Hurston was a prominent literary figure during the Harlem Renaissance. Main article Harlem Renaissance The first study public recognition of African American culture occurred during the Harlem Renaissance. In the 1920s and 1930s, African American music, literature, and art gained wide notice. Authors such as Zora Neale Hurston and Nella Larsen and poets such as Langston Hughes, Claude McKay, and Countee Cullen wrote playacts describing the African American experience.Jazz, gash, blues and other melodic forms entered American popular music. African American artists such as William H. Johnson and Palmer Hayden created unique works of art featuring African Americans. The Harlem Renaissance was also a time of increased political involvement for African Americans. Among the noteworthy African American political movements founded in the ahead of time 20th snow are the United total darkness Impr ovement Association and the landal Association for the Advancement of Colored People.The Nation of Islam, a notable Moslem religious movement, also began in the early 1930s. African American cultural movement The dark-skinned author movement of the mid-sixties and 1970s followed in the wake of the non-violent American Civil Rights Movement. The movement promoted racial self-conceit and ethnic cohesion in contrast to the focus on integration of the Civil Rights Movement, and adopted a more militant posture in the face of racism. It also inspired a new renascence in African American literary and artistic expression generally referred to as the African American or Black Arts Movement. The works of popular recording artists such as Nina Simone (Young, Gifted and Black) and The Impressions (Keep On Pushin), as well as the poetry, fine arts and literature of the time, shaped and reflected the growing racial and political consciousness. Among the most prominent writers of the African American Arts Movement were poet Nikki Giovanni poet and publisher Don L. Lee, who later became cognize as Haki Madhubuti poet and playwright Leroi Jones, later k like a shotn as Amiri Baraka and Sonia Sanchez. Other influential writers were Ed Bullins, Dudley Randall, Mari Evans, June Jordan, Larry Neal and Ahmos Zu-Bolton. around other major aspect of the African American Arts Movement was the infusion of the African aesthetic, a return to a collective cultural sensibility and ethnic compliment that was much in evidence during the Harlem Renaissance and in the celebration of Negritude among the artistic and literary circles in the U. S. , Caribbean and the African continent nearly four decades earlier the subject that black-market is beautiful. During this time, there was a resurgence of interest in, and an embrace of, elements of African culture within African American culture that had been suppressed or devalued to conform to Eurocentric America.Natural hairstyles, such as the afro, and African clothing, such as the dashiki, gained popularity. More of the essence(predicate)ly, the African American aesthetic encouraged personal pride and political awareness among African Americans. Music pic Men playing the djembe, a traditional West African drum adopted into African American and American culture. The bags and the clothing of the man on the right are printed with traditional kente cloth patterns. African American music is rooted in the typically polyrhythmic music of the ethnic groups of Africa, specifically those in the Western, Sahelean, and Sub-Saharan regions.African oral traditions, nurtured in slavery, encouraged the use of music to pass on history, teach less(prenominal)ons, ease suffering, and relay centers. The African pedigree of African American music is evident in several(prenominal) common elements call and response, syncopation, percussion, improvisation, swung notes, blue notes, the use of falsetto, melisma, and complex multi-part harmony. During slavery, Africans in America unify traditional European hymns with African elements to create spirituals. Many African Americans sing Lift Evry share and Sing in addition to the American national anthem, The Star-Spangled Banner, or in lieu of it.Written by James Weldon Johnson and John Rosamond Johnson in 1900 to be performed for the birthday of Abraham Lincoln, the song was, and continues to be, a popular way for African Americans to recall past struggles and express ethnic solidarity, faith and hope for the future. The song was adopted as the pitch blackness National Anthem by the NAACP in 1919. African American children are taught the song at school, church building or by their families. Lift Evry Voice and Sing traditionally is sung immediately following, or instead of, The Star-Spangled Banner at events hosted by African American churches, schools, and other organizations.In the 1800s, as the result of the blackface minstrel show, African American music ent ered mainstream American society. By the early twentieth century, several musical forms with origins in the African American community had transformed American popular music. Aided by the technological innovations of radio and phonograph records, ragtime, jazz, blues, and swing also became popular overseas, and the 1920s became known as the Jazz Age. The early 20th century also saw the creation of the first African American Broadway shows, films such as King Vidors Hallelujah, and operas such as George Gershwins Porgy and Bess.Rock and roll, doo wop, soul, and R&B developed in the mid 20th century. These genres became very popular in white audiences and were influences for other genres such as surf. The dozens, an urban African American tradition of using rhyming slang to put down your enemies (or friends) developed through the smart-ass street jive of the early Seventies into a new form of music. In the due south Bronx, the half speaking, half singing rhythmic street talk of rapp ing grew into the hugely successful cultural embrace known as Hip Hop.Hip Hop would become a multicultural movement. However, it is still important to many African Americans. The African American Cultural Movement of the 1960s and 1970s also fuel the growth of funk and later hip-hop forms such as rap, hip house, new jack swing and go go. African American music has experienced farthermost more widespread acceptance in American popular music in the 21st century than ever before. In addition to chronic to develop newer musical forms, modern artists have also started a rebirth of older genres in the form of genres such as neo soul and modern funk-inspired groups. Dance pic.The Cakewalk was the first African American dance to gain widespread popularity in the United States. pic African American dance, like other aspects of African American culture, finds its earliest roots in the dances of the hundreds of African ethnic groups that made up African slaves in the Americas as well as infl uences from European sources in the United States. Dance in the African tradition, and and then in the tradition of slaves, was a part of both every day life and special occasions. Many of these traditions such as get down, ring shouts, and other elements of African body language survive as elements of modern dance.In the 1800s, African American dance began to appear in minstrel shows. These shows ofttimes presented African Americans as caricatures for ridicule to large audiences. The first African American dance to become popular with snowy dancers was the cakewalk in 1891. Later dances to follow in this tradition include the Charleston, the Lindy Hop, and the Jitterbug. During the Harlem Renaissance, all African American Broadway shows such as Shuffle Along helped to establish and legitimize African American dancers.African American dance forms such as tap, a combination of African and European influences, gained widespread popularity give thanks to dancers such as Bill Robinso n and were used by leading White choreographers who lots hired African American dancers. Contemporary African American dance is descended from these earlier forms and also draws influence from African and Caribbean dance forms. Groups such as the Alvin Ailey American Dance Theater have continued to contribute to the growth of this form. modern font popular dance in America is also greatly influenced by African American dance.American popular dance has also drawn many influences from African American dance most notably in the hip hop genre. Art pic Sand Dunes at Sunset, Atlantic City by Henry Ossawa Tanner 1859-1937 From its early origins in slave communities, through the end of the twentieth century, African-American art has made a vital contribution to the art of the United States. During the period between the 1600s and the early 1800s, art took the form of small drums, quilts, wrought-iron figures and ceramic vessels in the southern United States. These artifacts have similariti es with comparable crafts in West and profound Africa.In contrast, African American artisans like the New Englandbased engraver Scipio Moorhead and the Baltimore portrait painter Joshua Johnson created art that was conceived in a thoroughly western European fashion. During the 1800s, Harriet Powers made quilts in rural Georgia, United States that are now considered among the finest examples of nineteenth-century sulfurern quilting. Later in the 20th century, the women of Gees Bend developed a distinctive, bold, and train quilting style based on traditional African American quilts with a geometric relaxation that developed separately but was like that of Amish quilts and modern art.After the American Civil War, museums and galleries began more ofttimes to display the work of African American artists. Cultural expression in mainstream venues was still limited by the dominant European aesthetic and by racial prejudice. To increase the visibility of their work, many African American artists traveled to Europe where they had greater freedom. It was not until the Harlem Renaissance that more whites began to pay attention to African American art in America. pic Kara Walker, Cut, Cut paper and adhesive on wall, Brent Sikkema NYC.During the 1920s, artists such as Raymond Barthe, Aaron Douglas, capital of Maine Savage, and photographer James Van Der Zee became well known for their work. During the Great Depression, new opportunities arose for these and other African American artists under the WPA. In later years, other programs and institutions, such as the New York City-based Harmon Foundation, helped to foster African American artistic talent. Augusta Savage, Elizabeth Catlett, Lois Mailou Jones, Romare Bearden, Jacob Lawrence and others exhibited in museums and juried art shows, and built reputations and followings for themselves.In the 1950s and 1960s, there were very few widely accepted African American artists. Despite this, The Highwaymen, a loose association of 27 African American artists from Ft. Pierce, Florida, created idyllic, quickly realized images of the Florida landscape and peddled some 50,000 of them from the trunks of their cars. They sold their art straightway to the public rather than through galleries and art agents, thus receiving the name The Highwaymen. Rediscovered in the mid-1990s, now they are know as an important part of American folk history.Their artwork is widely collected by enthusiasts and genuine pieces can easily fetch thousands of dollars in auctions and sales. The Black Arts Movement of the 1960s and 1970s was another period of resurgent interest in African American art. During this period, several African-American artists gained national prominence, among them Lou Stovall, Ed Love, Charles White, and Jeff Donaldson. Donaldson and a group of African-American artists formed the Afrocentric collective AFRICOBRA, which remains in existence today.The sculptor Martin Puryear, whose work has been acclaimed f or years, is being honored with a 30-year retrospective of his work at the Museum of Modern Art in New York starting November 2007. Notable contemporary African American artists include David Hammons, Eugene J. Martin, Charles Tolliver, and Kara Walker. Literature pic Langston Hughes, a notable African American poet of the Harlem Renaissance. African American literature has its roots in the oral traditions of African slaves in America. The slaves used stories and fables in much the same way as they used music.These stories influenced the earliest African American writers and poets in the 18thcentury such as Phillis Wheatley and Olaudah Equiano. These authors reached early high points by telling slave narratives. During the early 20th century Harlem Renaissance, numerous authors and poets, such as Langston Hughes, W. E. B. Dubois, and Booker T. Washington, grappled with how to respond to discrimination in America. Authors during the Civil Rights era, such as Richard Wright, James Bal dwin and Gwendolyn Brooks wrote about issues of racial segregation, heaviness and other aspects of African American life.This tradition continues today with authors who have been accepted as an integral part of American literature, with works such as grow The Saga of an American Family by Alex Haley, The Color Purple by Alice Walker, and Beloved by Nobel Prize-winning Toni Morrison, and series by Octavia butler and Walter Mosley that have achieved both crush-selling and/or award-winning status. Museums The African American Museum Movement emerged during the 1950s and 1960s to preserve the heritage of the African American experience and to ensure its proper interpretation in American history.Museums devoted to African American history are found in many African American neighborhoods. Institutions such as the African American Museum and Library at Oakland and The African American Museum in Cleveland were created by African Americans to teach and investigate cultural history that, u ntil recent decades was primarily preserved trough oral traditions. Language Generations of hardships imposed on the African American community created distinctive language patterns. Slave owners often intentionally mixed people who spoke dissimilar African languages to discourage communication in any language other than English.This, combined with prohibitions against education, led to the culture of pidgins, simplified mixtures of two or more languages that speakers of different languages could use to communicate. Examples of pidgins that became fully developed languages include Creole, common to Haiti,and Gullah, common to the Sea Islands off the coast of in the south Carolina and Georgia. African American Vernacular English is a type variety (dialect, ethnolect and sociolect) of the American English language c recidivately associated with the speech of but not exclusive to African Americans.While AAVE is academically considered a legitimatise dialect because of its logical s tructure, some of both Caucasians and African Americans consider it slang or the result of a poor command of Standard American English. Inner city African American children who are disjunct by speaking only AAVE have more difficulty with standardized testing and, subsequently school, contemptible to the mainstream world for work. It is common for many speakers of AAVE to code switch between AAVE and Standard American English depending on the setting. Fashion and aesthetics pic.A man weaving kente cloth in Ghana. Attire The cultural explosion of the 1960s saw the incorporation of surviving cultural dress with elements from modern fashion and West African traditional clothing to create a uniquely African American traditional style. Kente cloth is the best known African textile. These festive woven patterns, which exist in numerous varieties, were originally made by the Ashanti and Ewe peoples of Ghana and Togo. Kente fabric also appears in a number of Western style fashions rangin g from casual t-shirts to ball bow ties and cummerbunds.Kente strips are often sewn into liturgical and academic robes or worn as stoles. Since the Black Arts Movement, traditional African clothing has been popular amongst African Americans for both formal and informal occasions. Another common aspect of fashion in African American culture involves the appropriate dress for revere in the Black church. It is expected in most churches that an individual should present their best appearance for worship. African American women in particular are known for eroding vibrant dresses and suits.An interpretation of a release from the Christian Bible, every woman who prays or prophesies with her head uncovered dishonors her head , has led to the tradition of wearing elaborate Sunday hats, sometimes known as crowns. Hair Hair styling in African American culture is greatly varied. African American hair is typically composed of tightly coiled curls. The overabundant styles for women involve t he straightening of the hair through the application of heat or chemical processes. These treatments form the base for the most commonly socially acceptable hairstyles in the United States.Alternatively, the predominant and most socially acceptable practice for men is to leave ones hair natural. Often, as men age and begin to lose their hair, the hair is either closely cropped, or the head is shaved completely free of hair. However, since the 1960s, natural hairstyles, such as the afro, braids, and dreadlocks, have been growing in popularity. Although the association with radical political movements and their vast difference from mainstream Western hairstyles, the styles have not yet attained widespread social acceptance.Maintaining facial hair is more usual among African American men than in other male populations in the U. S. In fact, the soul bandage is so named because African American men, particularly jazz musicians, popularized the style. The favourence for facial hair amo ng African American men is due partly to personal taste, but because they are more prone than other ethnic groups to develop a condition known as pseudofolliculitis barbae, commonly referred to as razor bumps, many prefer not to shave. Body imageThe European aesthetic and attendant mainstream concepts of beauty are often at odds with the African body form. Because of this, African American women often find themselves under pressure to conform to European standards of beauty. Still, there are individuals and groups who are working towards raising the standing of the African aesthetic among African Americans and internationally as well. This includes efforts toward promoting as models those with clearly defined African features the mainstreaming of natural hairstyles and, in women, fuller, more well-endowed body types.Religion While African Americans practice a number of religions, Protestant Christianity is by far the most popular. Additionally, 14% of Muslims in the United States a nd Canada are African American. Christianity pic A river baptism in New Bern, brotherhood Carolina near the turn of the 20th century. The religious institutions of African American Christians commonly are referred tocollectively as the black church. During slavery, many slaves were stripped of their African belief systems and typically denied free religious practice.Slaves managed, however, to hang on to some practices by integrating them into Christian worship in secret meetings. These practices, including dance, shouts, African rhythms, and enthusiastic singing, remain a large part of worship in the African American church. African American churches taught that all people were equal in Gods eyes and viewed the doctrine of obedience to ones bounce back taught in white churches as hypocritical. Instead the African American church focused on the message of equality and hopes for a better future.Before and after(prenominal) emancipation, racial segregation in America prompted the d evelopment of organized African American denominations. The first of these was the AME Church founded by Richard Allen in 1787. An African American church is not necessarily a separate denomination. Several predominantly African American churches exist as members of predominantly white denominations. African American churches have served to provide African American people with lead positions and opportunities to organize that were denied in mainstream American society.Because of this, African American pastors became the bridge between the African American and European American communities and thus played a crucial role in the American Civil Rights Movement. ilk many Christians, African American Christians sometimes get in in or attend a Christmas play. Black Nativity by Langston Hughes is a re-telling of the classic Nativity story with gospel music. Productions can be found a African American theaters and churches all over the country. Islam pic A member of the Nation of Islam s elling intersection on a city street corner.Despite the popular assumption that the Nation represents all or most African American Muslims, less than 2% are members. Generations before the advent of the Atlantic slave championship, Islam was a thriving religion in West Africa due to its peaceful introduction via the lucrative trans-Saharan trade between prominent tribes in the southern Sahara and the Berbers to the North. In his attesting to this fact the West African scholar Cheikh Anta Diop explainedThe primary reason for the success of Islam in Black Africaconsequently stems from the fact that it was propagated peacefully at first by solitary Arabo-Berber travelers to certain Black kings and notables, who then spread it about them to those under their jurisdiction Many first-generation slaves were often able to retain their Muslim identity, their descendants were not. Slaves were either forcibly converted to Christianity as was the shimmy in the Catholic lands or were besieged with gross inconviences to their religious practice such as in the case of the Protestant American mainland.In the decades after slavery and particularly during the depression era, Islam reemerged in the form of passing visible and sometimes controversial heterodox movements in the African American community. The first of these of note was the Moresque Science Temple of America, founded by Noble Drew Ali. Ali had a profound influence on Wallace Fard, who later founded the Black nationalist Nation of Islam in 1930. Elijah Muhammad became head of the organization in 1934. Much like Malcolm X, who left the Nation of Islam in 1964, many African American Muslims now follow traditional Islam.A opinion by the Council on American-Islamic Relations shows that 30% of Sunni Mosque attendees are African Americans. African American orthodox Muslims are often the victims of stereotypes, most notably the assumption that an African American Muslim is a member of the Nation of Islam. They are of ten viewed by the uneducated African-American community in general as less authentic than Muslims from the Middle East or South Asia while credibility is less of an issue with immigrant Muslims and Muslim world in general. Other religions.Aside from Christianity and Islam, there are also African Americans who follow Judaism, Buddhism, and a number of other religions. The Black Hebrew Israelites are a collection of African American Judaic religious organizations. Among their varied teachings, they often include that African Americans are descended from the Biblical Hebrews (sometimes with the paradoxical claim that the Jewish people are not). There is a small but growing number of African Americans who participate in African traditional religions, such as Vodou and Santeria or Ifa and diasporic traditions like Rastafarianism.Many of them are immigrants or descendants of immigrants from the Caribbean and South America, where these are practiced. Because of religious practices, such a s animal sacrifice, which are no longstanding common among American religions and are often legally prohibited, these groups may be viewed negatively and are sometimes the victims of harassment. Life events For most African Americans, the observance of life events follows the pattern of mainstream American culture. There are some traditions which are unique to African Americans.Some African Americans have created new rites of passage that are colligate to African traditions. Pre-teen and teenage boys and girls take classes to prepare them for adulthood. They are typically taught spirituality, responsibility, and leadership. Most of these programs are modeled after traditional African ceremonies, with the focus largely on embracing African ideologies rather than specific rituals. To this day, some African American couples choose to jump the broom as a part of their wedding ceremony.Although the practice, which can be traced back to Ghana, fell out of favor in the African American c ommunity after the end of slavery, it has experienced a slight resurgence in recent years as some couples seek to reaffirm their African heritage. Funeral traditions tend to vary based on a number of factors, including religion and location, but there are a number of commonalities. Probably the most important part of decease and dying in the African American culture is the gathering of family and friends. Either in the last days before death or shortly after death, typically any friends and family members that can be reached are notified.This gathering helps to provide spiritual and emotional support, as well as assistance in devising decisions and accomplishing everyday tasks. The spirituality of death is very important in African American culture. A member of the clergy or members of the religious community, or both, are typically present with the family through the entire process. Death is often viewed as transitory rather than final. Many services are called homegoings, instead of funerals, based on the belief that the person is going home to the afterlife. The entire end of life process is generally treated as a celebration of life rather than a mourning of loss.This is most notably demonstrated in the New Orleans Jazz Funeral tradition where upbeat music, dancing, and food encourage those gathered to be joyous and celebrate the homegoing of a beloved friend. Cuisine pic A traditional soul food dinner consisting of heat up chicken, candied yams, collard greens, cornbread, and macaroni and cheese. The cultivation and use of many agricultural products in the United States, such as yams, peanuts, rice, okra, sorghum, grits, watermelon, indigo dyes, and cotton, can be traced to African influences.African American foods reflect creative responses to racial and economic oppression and poverty. Under slavery, African Americans were not allowed to eat better cuts of meat, and after emancipation many often were too poor to afford them. Soul food, a hearty cuis ine commonly associated with African Americans in the South (but also common to African Americans nationwide), makes creative use of inexpensive products procured through farming and subsistence hunting and fishing.