Saturday, August 31, 2019

Battle of Conformity and Non-conformity Essay

In Tom Schulman’s Dead Poets Society a group of bright students are enrolled in a prestigious New England private school named Welton Academy. This school stresses conformity and tradition as one of its trademarks. In order to survive in this school one must never challenge the institution. Dead Poets Society is a powerful example of the constant battle between conformity and non-conformity. Mr. Keating, a teacher at Welton, fights on the side of non-conformity and free- thinking. On the first day of school, he shows them a picture of past classes. He tells them that they are all in the Earth now, and they have a message for his current students. The message was â€Å"carpe diem†, or â€Å"seize the day†. He is telling them that one-day they will be dead, so it is imperative that they â€Å"make their lives extraordinary† and to â€Å"carpe diem†, seize the day. Carpe diem is important because he tells them to follow their dreams, but in many cases their dreams went against the principles of the school. Through his unorthodox teaching style he taught them that conformity was not necessary. Many of the poems he taught them all preached carpe diem, such as the following: Gather ye rosebuds while ye may Old time is still a flying And this same flower that smiles today Tomorrow will be dying. â€Å"Gather ye rosebuds while ye may† means that make your dreams come true before you die. However, they could never live their dreams if they conformed to what their parents wanted, or what their principal wanted. Another example of how his teaching promoted free thinking and non-conformity was the way he ripped out the introduction by J. Evans Prichard. He didn’t want his students to conform to Prichard’s views on poetry he wanted them to form their own views. He called the introduction â€Å"excrement† and yelled â€Å"rip it, rip it out†. Everyday in his classroom there would be a lesson that preached against non-conformity along with poetry. After reading a poem, Mr. Keating stood up on the table and said, â€Å"Why do I stand here? To feel taller than you? I stand on my desk to remind myself that we must constantly force ourselves to look at things differently.† He then invites his students to stand up. This is obviously a lesson in free thinking and non-conformity. He is saying that there is more than one view to everything, and he is inviting them to be unconventional. Mr. Keating  helps almost all of his students become free thinkers and non-conformists. This is illustrated at the end, when they all stand on their desks. Mr. Nolan, the principal at Welton, is a man who believes that tradition and conformity should be upheld in all cases. From the first day of school, he teaches them never to diverge from tradition. In the opening assembly, every word spoken by the students is done in unison. They all recite the four pillars, which are tradition, honor, excellence, and discipline. Neil Perry is a victim of society’s need for conformity. He is a Welton student, who has been entrapped in his father’s web of restrictions.

Friday, August 30, 2019

Be the Change You Wish to See in the World Essay

Gandhi said, â€Å"Be the change you wish to see in the world.† You have the power within you to create the life you want to live. You have the power to shape the world around you just by who you are being, and how you are communicating. The law of attraction, one of the fundamental aspects to living a life by design, explains that everything that is created in the outside world is the result of what takes place internally. Being the change you wish to see in the world starts with taking full responsibility for everything that is happening in your life. The first Law of Supreme Influence states, â€Å"I create my reality.† Creating your life by design means taking full ownership and total personal accountability for where you are right now. By accepting that you are fully â€Å"at cause† for your life, you access the wisdom to recognize how your moment-to-moment thoughts, words, and actions create the results you experience. Each of us is the author and architect of the results we experience. Every thought we have, word we speak (whether to ourselves or out loud), and action we take is like planting a seed; a seed that will germinate and grow when the appropriate conditions are present. Like farmers carefully planting the next harvest, we reap the effects of having sown the seeds of past thoughts and behaviors. There are no idle thoughts! Everything we see, and everything we experience has its origin and cause in the realm of thought. Understanding this phenomenon is the beginning of true wisdom. In life, you either get results or you give reasons, there is no in between. When you get a result and own it, whether you perceive it to be desirable or not, you become empowered through the wisdom that is found in recognizing how your thoughts, words, and actions create the results you receive. Owning your results is living â€Å"at cause†, giving reasons only initiates the opportunity to create similar results in the future. Any time someone gives a reason, even when it seems to be real and true, it leads to a loss of personal power. Giving reasons assumes what is happening outside of you is more powerful than your ability to transform it. And that is not true! You have the power to shift your world. It begins with you! Here are a few red flags that will illuminate anytime you’ve momentarily forgotten your creative power. Anytime you catch yourself blaming, minimizing, denying, or justifying – let it serve as a signal to bring your awareness to the present moment and come back to â€Å"cause.† As soon as you catch yourself, you can make a new choice. This gives you freedom! Being at cause for what occurs in your life gives you power, supporting you on your journey to be the change you wish to see in the world

Thursday, August 29, 2019

International Financial Manager Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

International Financial Manager - Essay Example Although IFMs are not really expert bankers however they could work in different roles across all of the business and support functions of the HSBC Group such as the Commercial Banking, Retail Banking and Wealth Management, Insurance, Global Private Banking, Risk Management, Global Banking and Markets, Audit and Operations. The International Financial Manager should be flexible since the financial assignments and projects are driven according to the business requirements. An IFM could be a fresh MBA or a management or finance professional seeking to take a next step in his or her career. As an IFM at HSBC, one should be able to: †¢Ã‚  Demonstrate leadership qualities.†¢Ã‚  Commit to the ongoing global mobility across the career path.†¢Ã‚  Develop a clear understanding of the challenges and opportunities related to the changing roles at regular intervals.†¢Ã‚  Make an immediate impact irrespective of the current level or status of the job.HSBC provides a highly com petitive remuneration package and benefits to its International Financial Managers that include: †¢Ã‚  The International Financial Managers at HSBC strive to encourage the potential business community all over the world to invest in their financial services and products.   In doing so, they need to show to the investors that the bank possesses adequate value of Owner’s Equity and retained earnings for funding in its future progress and that HSBC has been able to maintain its liabilitie. They should also focus on operation efficiency since it is the key factor.

Wednesday, August 28, 2019

Rem Koolhass Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Rem Koolhass - Essay Example He orchestrated many works of brilliance in many cities the world over and his artistry has earned him many prestigious individual accolades from reputable institutions among them Summary: Why Is Koolhaas the World’s Most Controversial Architect? According to Nicolai Ourousoff, the Smithsonian Magazine, and September issue 2012. Rem Koolhaas is widely respected and critiqued in equal measures. It is noted that he has been this controversial ever since his studentship in the 70s in London. He is unlike the other architects who are ready to compromise their work ethics for economic gains. He is described as being highly provocative and ill-behaved professionally. He has won several architectural competitions with the most recent one being in China. He was commissioned to undertake the building of the Headquarters of China Central Television. This works has been a source of scathing attacks from pro-western institutions and powers who insinuated that he was helping in the expansi on of a Dictatorial regime in China. However, other sources described the building as a masterpiece. This is just an example of the mixed reactions his works have elicited. He has taken part in many competitions even though he won some; he has also lost quite a number. For instance, his proposal to spearhead the transformation of the Museum of modern Art into a ministry of self-proclamation known as MoMA Inc. was badly rejected. Even though he has been under pressure from various sources, he has been able to nurture several great modern day architects such as DjarkeIngels of Copenhagen based BIG, and Winy Maas of MVRDV firm in the Netherlands. His books are also widely used by many architectural students all over the world who always try to emulate him. He is quite unpredictable unlike most of his peers and other magnificent architects of his reputation such as FranskGehry and ZahaHadid, who maintained their focus over long careers. Apart from architecture, he is also a great theore tician of the industry and has written quite a number of books concerning different architectural ideologies on major urban cities. In one of his demonstrations in Venice, he was against the out brushing historic buildings that represented more uncomfortable chapters in our past. He further wonders why people incredibly fear change rather than embracing it. His company has since expanded to other cities outside its Headquarters such as Hong Kong and New York. It has employed some 325 employees all architects. However, he has a personal preference for Rotterdam due to its isolation and location as a port city. Even though he is highly reputed, he still takes part in competitions. He concurs that this that this allows for creative liberty due to the changing ideas and preference of the client. However, in this process a lot of risk is involved. A lot of resource is wasted in projects that will never take off. One of his first tests of his urban theories manifested itself in the form o f the Euralille development on the outskirts of the French city of Lille in the mid-1990s. It was to include a shopping mall, conference and exhibition center and office towers in the midst of train tracks and freeways. His work was to be complimented by other well-known architects who helped in designing the various buildings. Koolhaas personally designed

Tuesday, August 27, 2019

Businees organisation and policy Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Businees organisation and policy - Essay Example Furthermore, Board members believe that acquisitions or mergers will have long-run benefits for improving innovation or expanding product line to ensure higher revenues and thereby make the company more attractive to investors through bond issuance or stock purchasing. Despite this rationale, there are several different factors that lead to failures in merger and acquisition failures: cultural integration problems, direct management failures in execution and leadership, the current position of either company as it relates to product/service life cycle and the speed by which changes are made within the new blended organisation. This report gives perspective on these failures and potential successes to justify why Board members continue to pursue this strategy, using real-world case studies as reference for analysis. 2. Failed merger: Hewlett Packard and Compaq Both Hewlett Packard and Compaq believed a blended company would achieve synergies in relation to cost, research and developme nt, innovation and time to market, as well as consolidation of service and technical support which were significant expenditures as self-operated firms. Compaq had a well-established brand, however complexities in the consumer market, along with emerging competition offering similar services and products, continued to erode brand loyalty and sales revenues. At the time of the merger, Compaq experienced a net income of only $78 million, a decline from 2000 of $296 million (Compaq 2001). This was significantly low considering Compaq sustained revenues of 1.1 billion dollars in 2001. Compaq maintained significantly high operating expenses and credit/loan repayments that continued to erode cash flow and shareholder equity. HP, on the other hand, maintained a much stronger balance sheet and sustained a healthier brand loyalty in consumer markets and thus intended to strengthen the positioning of Compaq and consolidate its over-financed operations to ensure synergistic outcomes. However, executives at HP failed to consider that both Compaq and Hewlett-Packard were in the maturity stage of the service and product life cycle and would both be moving toward sales declines without innovative service and product launches. At the time of merger, Hewlett Packard was having a significantly difficult time competing with the B2B market alongside competition such as IBM and Sun in relation to server product purchases to sustain business information technology infrastructures (Hoopes 2004). This was a very profitable market for competition and for HP if they managed to position themselves properly on the B2B market. Investors found that the inability to gain target market business customers would only be further sustained by blending Compaq’s already troubled brand into its corporate sales and marketing strategies. HP and Compaq were already both experiencing the maximum profit expected without modernising services in the maturity stage and, at the time, neither company were working on significantly differentiated product developments to expand revenues and avoid eventual sales declines. Hewlett Packard also maintained a very rigid, top-down hierarchy that was highly centralized whilst Compaq had a more liberal system of governance that fostered more innovation and free

Monday, August 26, 2019

Further Computer Systems Achitecture Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Further Computer Systems Achitecture - Essay Example In order to overcome the limitations met by traditional architectures, IA-64 used a technique called predication where it could indicate which paths are being utilized and which are not. The paths that are in use proceed with their activity while paths detected as unused would be automatically turned off. Predication is an effective technique that allows the handling of complex activities when the computer pursues aggressive instruction level parallelism (ILP).2 Memory insufficiency is a common problem that traditional architecture cannot address because CPU’s run on faster speeds than usual. IA-64 resolves the problem by using a technique referred to as speculation.3 The purpose of this is to initiate loads of previous memory initiations even before the branch is required. This makes the memory available on demand. This also increases instruction level parallelism thus reducing the â€Å"impact of memory latency†.4 The â€Å"Nat† bits allow IA-64 to load data ahead of time without registering an error message.5 Traditional architectures have limited instruction level parallelism. In IA-64 architecture, processors usually include â€Å"128 general purpose integer registers, 128 floating point registers, 64 predicate registers and many execution units† to accommodate present and future requirements.6 This is especially important if the server handles huge amount of data at any given time. IA-64 architecture handles loops different from traditional architecture. The use of register rotation prevents code bloats by allowing the â€Å"pipelining of loops.†7 Unlike traditional architecture, each register moves up a notch. The last register will revert back to the beginning hence simulating rotation. In combination with the predication, the loop feature enables the compiler to create a loop code that is important in highly parallel forms.8 To further

Sunday, August 25, 2019

Sociology - analysis on social class Research Paper

Sociology - analysis on social class - Research Paper Example The upper class consist of the elite and aristocratic people , an upper middle class consist of highly educated and wealthy professional, a lower- middle class are those doing white collar jobs , working class are those with clerical jobs and poor are the underprivileged and unemployed lot. The life style of people drastically deviates according to their status and power. Their spending power and habits are enormously different and a comparison is less possible. It can be seen that upper class people find enough time for leisure activities and pastimes whereas the poor class hardly have means to survive. People of the upper class have the habit of reading as they are well educated but the poor are not of the habit of reading much. Even though reading materials are at large which cater to the rich and the poor? The magazines and books which the elite read are more parallel with their life style and activities. The business men and women are more loyal to magazines which elaborate on business news and political scenario of the globe. Business people are all time indulged in their profession and when find time they are interested in flipping through the pages of magazines which give a glimpse about business activities and financial updates. Forbes is one of such magazine which has acclaimed to be at the top list for its quality and high demand among the elite class. â€Å"Forbes has some of the best financial articles Ive ever read. The articles are deep, academic, and extremely well thought out†(Schlimmer ,2007). This magazine covers very well the financial and business news and that attracts the men in the upper class. The magazine also gives latest update on the rich list and powerful people in the society which is a big concern of the elite class. Forbes magazine gives a great insight to the industrialist with relate to the investment and stock market. It is a very trusted

Saturday, August 24, 2019

Follow-up Questions for 2nd Writing Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Follow-up Questions for 2nd Writing - Assignment Example oved from Montgomery to Hampton to look for green pastures and mostly because park had disagreements with King and other heads of the civil rights movement. Parks got a new job in Hampton as a hostess in a hotel and after a short while they moved again to Michigan (Parks and Reed 2006, 44). Until in 1965, Park labored as a seamstress when the American-African diplomat for U.S, J.Conyers employed her as a secretary. In 1970, Parks experienced the worst of her live when illness struck her, her husband, brother and mother causing her to admit donations from well-wishers (Weidt 2003, 76). Later on Parks was involved in a fall accident while she was walking on an icy sidewalk and she was hospitalized with broken bones. It was a big blow when she lost her family members within a short span of time (Weidt 2003, 81). In 1980 she devoted herself to founding and raising finances for communal rights and learning associations. In 1992 she published her autography named Rosa Park-my story which was aiming the youthful generation and there after her memoir-Quiet Strength and points out the significance role her faith played in her life (Weidt 2003, 84). In 1994, she was attacked by a drug addict an ordeal that traumatized her for long. She made her last appearance on the film in 1999 after participating in a movie called Touched by an Angel (Weidt 2003, 91). In 2000 her health deteriorated and was almost evicted from her apartment when a Baptist church came to her rescue due to high accumulation of rent debts (Weidt 2003, 91). She was honored and received many awards due to her achievements and later died on October

Friday, August 23, 2019

Can it be decided by you Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Can it be decided by you - Essay Example However, their strong holds were later to be shaken. As a matter of fact the major political changes in the region occurred from 1809 to 1825. This is according to the historyworld.net website. (historyworld.net, 2009) The royal family of Portugal stayed on in Brazil and a treaty was signed between Portugal and England in 1810 and this overlapped the treaty of Methuen of the year 1703. This recognized a direct accessibility to Brazil by the traders of Britain which made faster the movement towards the political independence of Brazil. (Birmingham, 2003 p99) This study is set out to analyze the Brazilian case of independence movement and make a comparison of this case with other Latin American Spanish colonized states. To this an answer will be provided for the study question, â€Å"How was the Spanish- Latin American countries’ independence movements more violent compared to Brazil?† The Brazilian case of decolonization was not devoid of bloodshed. This is as it is written on the about.com website. Towards the end of year 1821, the Cortà ©s were involved in a voting, with just few Brazilian delegates taking part. The voting led to the abolishment of the kingdom of Brazil as well as the royal Rio de Janeiro agencies. The voting also sought to ensure that all provinces subordinated directly to the city of Lisbon. Subsequently, Portugal drove its army troops to Brazil and also placed all the units of Brazil under the command of Portugal. In the beginning of year 1822, the Brazilians who were born in Portugal and the troops of Portugal had a lot of tension between them. This turned into a violent ordeal when Pedro made an acceptance of Brazilian towns’ petitions who wanted his refusal of the order by Cortà ©s to go back to Lisbon. Following this, Pedro responded to the pressure as well as the fact that if he dismantled the central government and departed it would cause separatist movements, by vowing to

History (access to humanities and social science) Essay - 1

History (access to humanities and social science) - Essay Example (Davis & Moore, 1945: quoted in Zaidi, 1999) The most important factor of social stratification includes the division of society in three main classes i.e. upper, middle and lower. Lower or labor class makes the largest stratum of almost all societies that contains limited income resources and wealth. An overwhelming majority of the individuals belonging to this class has to survive and fulfill their needs and requirements in these scarce resources. Since the poor stratum or lower class is not able to keep the wolf from the door even by working hard from dawn to dusk, almost all members of this class engage themselves in financial activities in order to meet with their growing expenditures. Consequently, the children are also expected regarding lending a helping hand to their parents and senior family members by earning something in one way or the other. Hence, child labor has been in vogue for centuries, and children of lower stratum had been deprived of proper nutrition, adequate l earning facilities basic education and other fundamental rights since ever. The working classes had been undergoing extremely miserable and pathetic situation in all parts of the planet. Their situation was worse in European countries during 18th and 19th centuries, where the exploitation of the innocent children was order of the day. They worked at the houses, farms and agricultural lands of the rich clergy and nobility from dawn to dusk, and did not get any money in return. Industrial revolution of 1750 increased the miseries of the working classes and their children were forced to work in mills and factories with no or nominal remunerations and wages. Since there had been taken place no legislation to protect the rights of women and children at the eve of industrial revolution, there was no statute of law to bar the recruitment of children in industries. It was the time when industry was in its budding and the owners of mills, factories and industrial units required

Thursday, August 22, 2019

The Requirements of Quartz Sand Making Machine Essay Example for Free

The Requirements of Quartz Sand Making Machine Essay Quartz crusher is crushing machine used for quartz sand, glass production line. SBM provides quartz crushers, gravel crushers for quartz crushing, grinding. The quartzite principal constituent may be the quartz, such as ceramics, cement, glass, the optical fiber and so forth. A very large amount associated with quartz, which prompted the establishment of a lot of quartz quarry. Quartz sand is the important artificial sand used in construction building. In quartzite quarry, we can use quartz crushing plant for crushing quartz stone, The most typical quartz quarry is processes the actual quartz into quartz sand, quartz sand quality directly affect the earnings of quartz quarry, so the quartz sand making machine requirements are extremely high, usually quartz crusher manufacturing quality low, this quartz fine sand price is low, but affects the quartz sand quality the main cause is the quartz fine sand production line’s craft, our company was engaged within the quartz sand production line design already to possess more than 30 years, experienced the rich experience, the common granularity unqualified phenomenon proposed because of the quartz sand production process within the close up stone sand manufacturing line, this kind of production collection use sand making machine and also the vibrating screen formed a shut path, might the effective answer stone sand quality question. The first step of processing begins after the extraction from quarry or pit. Many of these steps also are common to recycled materials, clay, and other manufactured aggregates. The first stage in most operations is the reduction and sizing by crushing. Some operations, however, provide a step prior to crushing called scalping. Scalping most often is used to divert fines at a jaw primary crusher in order to improve crusher efficiency. In this way the very coarse portion is crushed and then recombined with the portion of crusher-run material before further processing. This first step may, however, be an excellent time to improve a deleterious problem. If a deleterious or fines problem exists in the finer fraction of crusher-run material (namely, clay, shale, finely weathered material, etc. ) the fall-through of the scalping operation may be totally or partially diverted and wasted, or may be made into a product of lesser quality. In any case, only acceptable amounts, if any, should be returned back into the higher quality product. Consideration of process variables in this early stage may be very important.

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

Human Population Growth And Its Effect Environmental Sciences Essay

Human Population Growth And Its Effect Environmental Sciences Essay Population growth can be defined as an increase or decrease in the population size of living species including human beings. Human populations are also subject to natural process of birth and death. There has been a rapid increase in the worlds human population over the last few decades (UNFPA, 2011). Unless urgent steps are taken to control population, serious problems can arise like environment damage and limited availability of food resources. Continuous population growth can be problem and therefore it is important to understand how we can manage population growth for the benefit of all. Human beings have tried to make food resources available for all the population in many ways. Starting from the industrial revolution, advances in modern medicine, and green agriculture revolution have all made us self sufficient so far. However such technology development cannot go forever and therefore unless we manage population a day may come when all resources will be finished. At present there are two school of thought for the theories on population growth. The first is the pessimistic view developed by Reverend Robert Malthus, a British scholar who believed that the resources available will not be sufficient for human beings if human population is not controlled. The other theory is the optimistic view developed by Julian Simon who believed that humans can manage the issue of population because of their knowledge and skills. Therefore this paper will discuss these two theories for population growth and their effect on the resources and environment of the earth. II. Factors affecting population growth The population growth is determined mainly by birth rate, death rate, and migration patterns (immigration and emigration). For instance the population in the developed countries like Europe and America is growing at rate of only 0.1% per year while in developing countries the growth rate is over 1.5% per year. (Wright and Boorse,2011) (UNDP). In developing countries where manual labour is still considered main source of labour, children form part of the labour force and therefore families tend to have more children. Similarly when the pension system is not good, people tend to raise more children to look after during old age. Wherever women are more educated and take lead role in household income activities, there tend to be less number of children raised. In areas where traditions, culture and customs are respected population tend to be higher due to less use of contraceptives. III. Impacts of population growth Although it may be difficult to measure the carrying capacity for humans on earth (Cohen, 1995) scientists have estimated the carrying capacity at around 7.7 billion people (Van Den Bergh and Rietveld, 2004). It is now estimated that the world population will be around 9.1 billion by the year 2050. The very high population growth has raised concerns that the planet may not be able to sustain such population in the long run. Increasing population will mean increased demand for food, water, and other resources such as fossil fuel. The impact of population growth can be seen by everyone who care for the world that we live in. Over the last few decades there has been large scale destruction of the tropical forests mainly to make land available for agriculture and for urbanization. In order to produce enough food to meet the demand of growing population, forests have been cleared to undertake farming. Due to increased industrialization and urbanization, there has been great increase in th e pollution of air, water and the environment of the planet. Growing population will result in the depletion of natural resources such as water, fossil fuels (Hubert, 1982); deforestation and loss of ecosystems; and emergence of new diseases. It will also lead to more starvation, hunger and unhygienic living conditions in poor countries. IV. Factors affecting environment Environment means our surroundings in which all the things, living or non living, which includes atmosphere (air), hydrosphere (water), lithosphere (solid earth), biosphere (all living organisms), and geosphere (rocks and regoliths). Numerous factors affect our environment which includes anthropogenic activities such as urbanization, industrialization, deforestation, overpopulation, and use of fossil fuels. Natural disasters such as earthquakes, volcanoes, cyclones, landslide and floods can also negatively affect the environment. V. Relationship between environment and population growth Humans are an integral part of the eco-system of nature and there is close interconnection between human beings and environment. Ever since life existed humans have been depending on their environment for food, shelter, and other necessities. There is an inverse relationship existing between population growth and environment as overpopulation will lead to adverse effect on the environment. As human population increase, there is also increase in the demand for food and other energy sources. It is essential that the population is maintained at a level so that the natural resources are sufficient to meet the requirement for survival of all living beings. VI. Neo-Malthusian or pessimistic views on population growth Malthusian theories or pessimistic theories on population growth was derived from the ideas of Reverend Thomas Robert Malthus, a British scholar who wrote series of essays on the principles of population. There were six editions of his An Essay on the Principle of Population (published from 1798 to 1826) in which he said that if the human population growth is left unchecked the food supply will not be sufficient to meet the needs of humans. He proposed the idea that while human population grew exponentially, the food resources grew only arithmetically. He also believed that population will be controlled naturally by disease, famine and mortality. This was called as the pessimistic model of population growth. Malthus believed in using preventive checks such as abstinence, delayed marriage and restricting marriages in order to control population growth. Some people criticized Malthuss theory based on the fact that there has been an enhanced agricultural production and reduced human fer tility over the past few decades since the publication of his theories. However, many still believe in his theory that if left unchecked, population growth can pose serious problems for resource availability (Cristina, 2010). Neo-Malthusianism These are groups who also believe in the theories of Malthus and encourage population control programs for the present and future benefit of human beings. The Neo-Malthusians view however differ from Malthus in their belief on the use of contraceptive techniques for the birth control measures. The neo-Malthusians or the pessimistic view had more concerns about the effect that population growth would have on environmental degradation. While they supported the theories put forward by Malthus, this group of people strongly supported the idea of actively controlling population growth in order to prevent adverse impact on the environment. This pessimistic group are concerned about the effect overpopulation may have on resource depletion and environmental degradation. There has been a general revival in neo-Malthusian ideologies from the 1950s onwards especially after the publication of series of books by some Malthusian supporters such as Fairfield Osborn (Our Plundered Planet), William V ogt (Road to Survival) and Paul Ehrlich (The Population Bomb). Although many critics of neo-Malthusianism criticize the revival of this theory based on fact that the green revolution has led to sufficient food production, Pessimists such as Paul Ehrlich believe that unchecked population will ultimately lead to serious problems in the future (Ehrlich, 2009). Neo-Malthusian or the pessimistic view is more about the positive checks but Malthusian said that there is balance between both positive and negative checks. Technological or Optimistic views on population growth. The optimistic model of population growth was proposed by Julian Simon who in his book The Ultimate Resource (1981) argued that as resources become scarce the price goes up which in turn creates incentives for people to discover new source or find alternatives for the resource. Simon also claims in his book that the natural resources are infinite based on the justification that innovative methods can be used to make natural resources available. Increasing population growth and reduced resources make people to create innovations and inventions to produce more food and all basic needs. The optimistic view said that science and technology can overcome scarcity problems. Esther Boserup (1910-1999)-Danish economist said necessity is the mother of invention. So, humanity will always find a way to overcome their problems. The optimistic view also said that more people means more alternatives to find new materials and discover ways to do things. Discussion It can be seen from the above paragraphs that population growth can impact on the state of environment of our planet. Of the two theories on population growth, I support the neo-malthusian theory of pessimistic views based on the following justifications. Deforestation for agriculture If the human population growth is left unchecked, a day might come when the earths resources will not be able to sustain the requirements of human beings. As overpopulation will demand increasing food, energy, and other resources, humans will engage in activities that will directly affect our environment and ecosystem. For instance, about 160,000 square kilometers per of tropical rainforests are cleared for agricultural use thus resulting in loss of habitat for the biodiversity (Laurance, 1999). Such loss of forests will contribute to global warming and other negative effects on environment. Urbanization/industrialization In order to meet the growing demand of increasing population, humans have been using technologies such as industrialization for enhanced production of food and other needs. Increased industrialization and urbanization results in air pollution, noise pollution, and water pollution which are all detrimental to our environment. Increased urbanization will also mean clearance of forests for construction of roads, buildings etc. which further adds to pollution. Depletion of non-renewable natural resources and emission of green house gases Uncontrolled growth of population will lead to rapid depletion of non-renewable natural resources such as fossil fuels which are used as source of energy. The burning of fossil fuel i.e. carbon based fuels, mainly wood, coal, oil and natural gas produces significant amount of CO2 which is one of the main green house gases that contributes to global warming (International Energy Outlook, 2000). The green house effect maintains the earth at comfortable temperature range but if there is excessive release of CO2 and other harmful gases from the industries and factories, the green house gases gets easily out of control and will lead to so many problems like continental drift, climate change, natural disasters and variations of suns out put. Loss of biodiversity and habitat Due to growing population, especially in the rural areas of developing countries, people practising shifting cultivation undertake slash-and-burn techniques which results in the extinction of native flora and fauna. It has been reported that nearly 140,000 species are lost every year due to deforestation activities (Pimm, Russell, Gittleman and Brooks, 1995). Therefore, if population growth is not controlled, increasing human activities will further result in destruction of the habitat and loss of biodiversity. In Bhutan, human-wildlife especially human-elephant conflict is increasing and this is mainly due to the loss of habitat for the elephants due to increasing human population and activities (Kuensel, 19 May 2012). IX. Solutions There is a need to find solutions to decrease the problems associated with overpopulation and environmental degradation. The governments around the world should have policies to decrease the population growth rate by increasing use of birth control measures. The governments should also frame good policies to protect forests and environment and prevent loss of natural habitat. Innovative ideas and research should be done to increase food production without disturbing the environment. The governments should increase funding for education and awareness of especially the poor people for them to protect and take care of their environment. X. Conclusions In conclusion overpopulation can lead to problems in the form of depleting natural resources, environmental pollution and degradation, and loss of habitat. Therefore, urgent steps need to be taken to manage human population growth to a level that can be managed well. The theories founded by Reverend Malthus can be still followed because the natural resources available now may not be sufficient in the future if we do not control human population growth. XI. References Cristina Luiggi. (2010). Still Ticking. The Scientist 24 (12): 26. Hubbert, M.K. Techniques of Prediction as Applied to Production of Oil and Gas, US Department of Commerce, NBS Special Publication 631, May 1982. International Energy Outlook 2000, Energy Information Administration, Office of Integrated Analysis and Forecasting, U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, D.C. (2000) Joel Cohen, How Many People Can the Earth Support? (New York: Norton, 1995) J. Van Den Bergh and P. Rietveld, Reconsidering the Limits to World Population: Meta-analysis and Meta-predictions, Bioscience 54, no 3 (2004): 195. Kuensel, 19 May 2012, Page 22. Laurance, W. F. 1999. Reflections on the tropical deforestation crisis. Biological Conservation 91: 109-117. Paul R. Ehrlich; Anne H. Ehrlich (2009). The Population Bomb Revisited. Electronic Journal of Sustainable Development 1(3): 6371. Retrieved 2010-02-01. S.L. Pimm, G.J. Russell, J.L. Gittleman and T.M. Brooks, The Future of Biodiversity, Science 269: 347350 (1995). Sahney, S. , Benton, M.J. Falcon-Lang, H.J. (2010). Rainforest collapse triggered Pennsylvanian tetrapod diversification in Euramerica (PDF). Geology 38 (12): 10791082. doi:10.1130/G31182.1. Tilman D., Fargione J., Wolff B., DAntonio C., Dobson A., Howarth R., Schindler D., Schlesinger W. H., Simberloff D. et al. (2001). Forecasting agriculturally driven global environmental change. Science 292: 281284. doi:10.1126/science.1057544. PMID11303102. United nations Population Fund, 2011 (http://www.unfpa.org/swp/ ) Wright and Boorse. (2011). Environmental Science.

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

Modern Industrial Society

Modern Industrial Society This essay will attempt a brief review of the history of the concept culture and its relationship with the concept civilization, in order to understand the two concepts, without making any claims towards offering anything new in the analysis of the chronological account of how the definition of culture changed over time.  [1]  Instead, the essay will attempt to explore the harmonies and dis-harmonies in the utilization of the two concepts, as a way of coming to terms with immanent ruptures and continuities which were explicated in various ways in which the logic and lexicon of these concepts were deployed in the different anthropological traditions over the years. From the outset, I would like to mention that I almost abandoned this particular topic because of the difficulties I encountered in finding a concise definition of, mainly the concept of culture. When, after several weeks of reading, it finally dawned on me that actually there was none, it all started to make sense that the subject of defining the concept of culture has never been closed and was never intended for foreclosure. This meant that understanding how the concept was variously deployed was as important as appreciating the manner of its deployment, especially in ways in which this was always associated with the concept of civilization, whose definition was more straightforward. The notion of Culture: Following a very unsuccessful search for a concise definition of the concept culture, it dawned on me that Terry Eagleton and several others was after all correct when he said that culture was one of the few very complicated concepts to have ever graced the English language (Armstrong, 2010: 1; Eagleton, 2006: 1; Kroeber Kluckhohn, 1952). Culture was a very difficult concept to define because the evolution of its etymology and its deployment varied in different contexts and anthropological traditions, both contemporary and classical. Its meaning in one setting was often contested in another. The word culture was first used in America  [2]  , and in etymological terms, its contemporary usage has its origin in attempts to describe mans relationship with nature, through which resources were extracted. It depicted the outcomes of extraction of resources from nature through a process of labor, for example, through crop farming and livestock production (Eagleton, 2006: 1). It was in this sense that the concept was first formally deployed in the 19th century in Germany, where the word used was Kultur, which in German referred to cultivation.  [3]  The early German usage of the word culture was heavily influenced by Kant, who, like his followers, spelled the word as culture, and used it repeatedly to mean cultivation or becoming cultured, which subsequently became the initial meaning of civilization (Kroeber Kluckhohn, 1952: 10). The way the concept was first used in modern English borrowed from the usage first made of the word by Walter Taylor, which dates back to 1871 , although according to Kroeber and Kluckhohn (1952: 9), Taylors use of the word culture, which was borrowed from German, was similar to the way the word civilization was used in Germany. The above sense in which the concept culture was for long deployed depicted it as an activity or occupation that entailed a materialist dimension related to the extraction of resources from nature. Coming from Walter Taylor, the modern scientific sense of the word culture no longer refers primarily to the process of cultivation, but more generally as a manifestation of customs, beliefs and forms of government (Kroeber Kluckhohn, 1952: 10). The latter sense signifies some abstraction to the transcendent and divine realm of spiritualism. Over time, the concept was also deployed in other ways that depicted it as an entity (Eagleton, 2006: 1). There was also a sense in which the concept of culture also depicted the transformation that took place in societys experiences with changing technologies of production as capitalism developed, although this understanding was quite often deployed in racist terms to differentiate between less industrialized nations of the non-west from the more ind ustrialized European societies. It is true, as observed by Eagleton that the relationship between nature and culture was such that nature produces culture which changes nature (Eagleton, 2006: 3). In this sense, there is a part of nature that is cultural, and another that is not. The part of nature which is cultural is that part which labor transforms, for example, into works of art, monuments, skyscrapers (or building structures) or cities. Such products of culture are as natural as rural idylls are cultural (Eagleton, 2006: 4). Because culture originally meant cultivation, or managing the growth of crops, which means husbandry, the cultural therefore would imply that which was within ones means to change. As pointed out by Eagleton (2006: 4), the stuff to be altered has its own autonomous existence, which then lends it something of the recalcitrance of nature in much the same way as the extent to which culture transforms nature and also influences the rigorous limits nature imposes on the cultural project. To this extent, I am in agreement with Eagleton (2006: 4-5) that the idea of culture signified a double rejection, of, on the one hand, the representation of culture as an organic (biological) determinism; and, on the other, as an interpretation of culture as an embodiment of autonomous spiritualism. To this extent therefore, culture rebuffs naturalism and idealism founded in biological determinism by insisting that from the point of view of culture, there was also a representation within nature which exceeded and dismantled nature. It also represented a refusal of idealism because even the highest-minded human agency had its humble roots in our biology and natural environment. The resulting contradiction from this rejection of naturalism (emanating from organic determinism) and idealism (as a result of autonomy of spirit) led to a contest between what had actually evolved and what ought to, which transfigured into what Eagleton described as a tension between making and being made, between rationality and spontaneity (Eagleton, 2006: 5). Consequently, although the relation between humans and nature was important to an understanding culture, in this paper, I consider the social relations between humans and nature in the course of extracting from nature, through which humans change nature to be the most important. This is what is central to understanding the concept of culture, which makes it possible to view it as a systematic way of life and living, that humans consciously develop that is transferred from the past to the present and into the future. It depicts some semblance of historically assembled normative values and principles internal to social organizations through which a diversity of relationships are ordered. In this way, it is possible to see how culture becomes an abstraction of itself, in its own right, which does not reify culture as a thing as this essentializes culture. I am inclined to agree with Armstrong (2010: 2) in her definition, which presents culture more as a process of meaning making which i nforms our sense of who we are, how we want to be perceived and how others perceive us. The above said, we also need to recognize that while culture is important, it is also not the only factor that shapes social relations between humans in the course of impacting on nature in ways that change it. Several other social, economic, political, geographical, historical and physical factors come into play. It is necessary to recognize that culture, which embodies as much as it conceals its specific history, politics and economics; is, as also pointed out by Franz Boaz  [4]  , not inert. It is an inherently Boasian conception to view culture as extremely dynamic; as having life, and existing in a continuous state of flux, as new notions of and about culture continues to emerge. This means that cultures cannot be expected to be static and homogenous. As new cultures emerge, tensions are usually generated. The totality of any culture and its individual trait cannot be understood if taken out of its general setting. Likewise, culture cannot also be conceived as controlled by a single set of conditions (Benedict, 1934: xv). It is also Franz Boaz  [5]  who noted that culture is some form of standardized or normative behavior. An individual lives in his/her specific culture, in as much the same way as culture is lived by an individual. Culture has a materiality that makes it manifest in diverse patterns implying that it meaningless to try and generalize or homogenize about cultural patterns (Benedict, 1934: xvi). Thinking of culture as socially constructed networks of meaning that distinguish one group from another implies not only a rejection of social evolution but also an endorsement of cultural relativism, which is also a Boasian tradition.  [6]  Boaz  [7]  rightly argued that perspectives that view culture in evolutionary terms tend to end with the construction of a unified picture of the history of culture and civilization, which is misleading. Tendencies which view culture as a single and homogenous unit, and as an individual historical problem is extremely problematic (Benedict, 1934: xv). I consider the distinctive life-ways of different people as the most basic understanding of the notion of culture. Cultural relativity is a recognition that different people have cultures and life-ways that are distinct from those of others. The notion of civilization: The concept of civilization, like culture, also has a complex etymology. By 1694, the French were already using the verb civiliser, and referred to the polishing of manners, rendering sociable, or becoming urbane as a result of city life (Kroeber Kluckhohn, 1952: 11). The French notion of civilization referred to the achievement of human advancement manifest in certain customs and standards of living. The French considered civilization as the end point of a process of cultivation that took place over centuries (Elliot, 2002). The English lagged behind the French.  [8]  In 1773, Samuel Johnson still excluded civilization from his dictionary, preferring civility, and yet civilization (from the word civilize) captured better the opposite of barbarity than civility. The English subsequently adopted the concept of civilization deriving it from the verb to civilize and associated it with the notion of civilizing others. The 1933 Oxford Dictionary defined civilization as: A developed o r advanced state of human society; a particular stage or type of this (Kroeber Kluckhohn, 1952: 12). By the 18th century, the word civilization in German was associated with the spread by the state of political developments akin to the German state to peoples of other nations. It was somewhat similar to the English verb to civilize (Kroeber Kluckhohn, 1952: 11). For the Germans and English, the concept of civilization invoked an imperial political agenda that was apparent in the way they deployed the concept. The harmony and dis-harmonies in deployment of concepts of culture and civilization: The evolutionary thinking about culture and civilization in the philosophy of Durkheim: Among the scholars who attempted a very rigorous narrative intended to distinguish between culture and civilization was Émile Durkheim, whose writings were first published in 1893. In trying to come to terms with the complex division of labor and associated behavioral changes that occurred with the industrial revolution in England, Durkheim, argued that inside modern industry, jobs were demarcated and extremely specialized, and while each product was a specialty, it entailed the existence of others in form of the labor they input into its production. As society evolved from agriculture to industry, so did culture of the pre-industrial era give way to civilization associated with the conditions of progress in human societies. Durkheim extended the concept of division of labor from Economics to organisms and society, from which its association with culture was derived, arguing that the more specialized an organisms functions were, the more exalted a place it occupied in the animal hierarchy. For Durkheim, the extent of division of labor in society influenced the direction of the development of the evolution of mankind from culture to civilization (Durkheim, 1984: 3). Durkheim used division of labor to make the distinction between culture as a preserve of the pre-modern mediaeval society and civilization as belonging to the modern industrial society. Durkheim argued that all societies are usually held together by social solidarity. In the pre-industrial societies, where social bonds were based on customs and norms, this solidarity was mechanical while in the industrial societies, which were highly individualistic, the solidarity was organic, and social bonds were maintained by contracts which regulated relations between highly individualistic beings. To Durkheim, societies transition from relatively simple pre-modern societies to relatively more complex industrial societies (Durkheim, 1984: 3). Durkheim argued that division of labor influenced the moral constitution of societies by creating moral rules for human conduct that influenced social order in ways that made industrial societies distinct from the pre-industrial ones. It created a civilized, individual man, capable of being interested in everything but attaching himself exclusively to nothing, able to savor everything and understand everything, found the means to combine and epitomize within himself the finest aspects of civilization. For Durkheim, tradition and custom, collectively defined as culture were the basis of distinction of the simpler societies which defined their mechanical form of solidarity that they exhibit. The modern societies, according to Durkheim, were characterized civilization (Durkheim, 1984: 3-4). Durkheim advanced an essentially Darwinian argument. In the biological determinism of Durkheim, it is argued that the shift from mechanical to organic solidarity was comparable to the changes that appeared on the evolutionary scale. Relatively simple organisms showing only minimal degrees of internal differentiation ceded place to more highly differentiated organisms whose functional specialization allowed them to exploit more efficiently the resources of the ecological niche in which they happened to be placed. The more specialized the functions of an organism, the higher its level on the evolutionary scale, and the higher its survival value. In similar ways, the more differentiated a society, the higher its chances to exploit the maximum of available resources, and hence the higher its efficiency in procuring indispensable means of subsistence in a given territory (Durkheim, 1984: xvi). There were fundamental contradictions in the perspectives of Durkheim. If Durkheim denigrated culture to the pre-modern, and viewed society as developing in evolutionary terms to the industrial, it could be assumed that he also believed that the solidarity which was associated with the industrial society was better. What then explains the fact that Durkheim was deeply convinced of and concerned about the pathology of acquisitiveness in modern capitalist society? Durkheim did not believe that the pathological features of the industrial society were caused by an inherent flaw in systems built on organic solidarity. Rather, he thought that the malaise and anomie were caused by transitional difficulties that could be overcome through the emergence of new norms and values in the institutional setting of a new corporate organization of industrial affairs (Durkheim, 1984: xxi). For Durkheim, the flaws in industrial and class relations did not mean that the pre-modern characterized by culture was better. That the class conflicts which were inherent in the industrial society and were associated with the structure of capitalist society would be overcome by the emergence of a new corporate society in which relations between employers and employees were harmonized. Beholden to none of the political and social orientations of his day, Durkheim always attempted to look for a balanced middle way (Durkheim, 1984: xxii). The contemporary play of relationships between culture and civilization has, to say the least, rendered wanting, the ideas which were advanced by Durkheim. For example, if culture is a preserve of the pre-modern, what explains the pervasiveness of barbarism within civilized formations of the industrialized world? Can we have culture in societies that are characterized as civilized or with civilization? Or are societies that are said to possess culture devoid of civilization? The contradictions in the etymology and deployment of concepts of culture and civilization: The usage of culture and civilization in various languages has been confusing. Websters Unabridged Dictionary for English defined both culture and civilization in terms of the other. Culture was a particular state or stage of advancement in civilization. Civilization was called advancement or a state of social culture. In both popular and literary English, they were often treated as near synonyms, though civilization was sometimes restricted to advanced or high cultures (Kroeber Kluckhohn, 1952: 13). As early as the 1950s, there were some writers who were inclined to regard civilization as the culture of urbanized societies characterized by cities. Often, civilization was considered a preserve for literate cultures, for instance, while the Chinese had civilization, the Eskimo were seen as in possession of culture (Kroeber Kluckhohn, 1952: 13). The English language distinction between civilization and culture made in the past was different from that made in the German language. In German, civilization was confined to the material conditions, while the English expression sometimes included psychic, moral, and spiritual phenomena (Kroeber Kluckhohn, 1952: 13). The German Kultur also referred to material civilization, while culture in English over time came to mean something entirely different, which corresponded to the humanities. The German Kultur also related to the arts of savages and barbaric peoples, which were not included in any use of civilization since the term civilization denoted a stage of advancement higher than savagery or barbarism. These stages in advancement in civilization were even popularly known as stages of culture; implying that the word culture was used synonymous with the German Kultur (Kroeber Kluckhohn, 1952: 13). In English, culture was a condition or achievement possessed by society. It was not individual. The English phrase a cultured person did not employ the term in the German sense. There was a sense of non-specificity in the way in which the concept culture (Kultur) was deployed in the German sense (Krober Kluckhorn, 1952: 13). From its etymological roots in rural labor, the word culture was first deployed in reference to civility; then in the 18th century, it became more or less synonymous with civilization, in the sense of a general process of intellectual, spiritual and material progress. In Europe, civilization as an idea was equated to manners and morals. To be civilized included not spitting on the carpet as well as not decapitating ones prisoners of war. The very word implied a dubious correlation between mannerly conduct and ethical behavior, which in England was equated to the word gentleman. As a synonym of civilization, culture belonged to the general spirit of Enlightenment, with its cult of secular, progressive self-development (Eagleton, 2006: 9). Form my reading of the literature on this subject, it was not clear at what point culture and civilization begun to be deployed interchangeably. Suffice to mention, however, that in English, as in French, the word culture was not unconditionally interchangeable with civilization. While it was not entirely clear, between the two concepts of culture and civilization, which predated the other, they both shared a transcendental association with the notion of cultivation, as something which is done to (or changes in) humans in the course of exacting labor upon nature to change it, that leads to the development of human qualities to suit the needs of collective humanity. Culture, which emerged in German from the notion of Kultur, which meant cultivation, appeared as a form of universal subjectivity at work within the particularistic realm of our separate individualities. For Eagleton (2006: 8), it was a view of culture as a component of civilization which was neither dissociated from socie ty nor wholly at one with it. This kind of focus also portrayed an essentially Kantian notion of man as becoming cultivated through art and science, and becoming civilized by attaining a variety of social graces and refinements (or decencies), in which the state had a role to play. This Kantian conception therefore distinguished between being cultivated and being civilized. Being cultivated referred to intrinsic improvement of the person, while being civilized referred to improvements of social interrelations (interpersonal relations), some kind of ethical pedagogy which served to liberate the collective self buried in every individual into a political citizen (Eagleton, 2006: 7; Kroeber Kluckhohn, 1952: 11). There was a sense in which the concept of civilization had an overwhelming French connection (coming from the concept civilizer), in the same way culture was associated with the Germans (from the concept Kultur). To be described as civilized was associated by the French with finesse with regards to social, political, economic and technical aspects life. For the Germans, culture had a more narrowly religious, artistic and intellectual reference. From this point of view, Eagleton (2006: 9) was right when he observed that: (i) civilization was deployed in a manner that played down national differences, while culture highlighted them; and, (ii) the tension between culture and civilization had much to do with the rivalry between Germany and France. I am reminded here of Eagletons famous phrase that: civilization was formulaically French, while culture was stereotypically German (Eagleton, 2006: 10-11). Towards the end of the 19th century civilization and culture were invariably viewed as antonyms. If, however, the description by Eagleton (2006: 9) of French notion of civilization as a form of social refinement is acceptable, then one can also accept Kroeber and Kluckhohn (1952: 14) description of civilization as a process of ennobling (or creating nobility) of humanity through the exercise by society of increased control of the elementary human impulses. This makes civilization a form of politics. In the same light, I also agree with Kroeber and Kluckhohn (1952: 14) that cultures German connections link it with the control of nature through science and art, which means culture embodies technology (including equipment) as well as knowledge systems (including skills) relevant for subduing and employing nature. The implications of the above are two-fold: (a) culture and civilization, can not be looked at as antonyms or binary opposites, in the sense in which evolution theorists would want us to view the relationship between these two concepts with culture as being akin to an inferior status while civilization is ascribed to the superior; (b) both tend to depict not only elements of normativity in advance in life-forms, but also constantly improving internal conditions of the internal elements of these concepts that define humanity which they embody. There is a way in which the elements embodied by these concepts depict superiority in their respective life-forms. Even when there are tendencies for overlaps in the elements depicted by these two concepts, for example, their association with politics, art, technology and urban living, there is a sense in which both concepts cannot be viewed as stages of development one from the other. It appears to me that Eagleton viewed civilization as a value-judgmental concept that pre-supposed an improvement on what went before, to whatever was not only right, but a great deal better than what was (Eagleton, 2006: 10). Eagleton was also non-presumptive when he pointed out that historically, the deployment of the term put it within the lexicon of a pre-industrial European middle class, which used the concept to justify imperial ambitions of mercantile and early industrial European capitalism towards those they categorized as of inferior civilization (Eagleton, 2006: 10). This fact has to be borne in mind if the concept when the concept is deployed today. Culture on the other hand, required certain social conditions that bring men into complex relationships with natural resources. The state becomes a necessity. Cultivation was a matter of the harmonious, all-round development of the personality. Because there was overwhelming recognition that nobody could do this in isolation, this helped to shift culture from its individual to its social meaning. Culture had a social dimension (Eagleton, 2006: 10). Whichever was, between culture and civilization, the progenitor of the other, there is a dual sense in which these concepts appear linked by their enlightenment era roots; and also not linked at the same time. I agree with Eagleton that civilization sounds abstract, alienated, fragmented, mechanistic, utilitarian, in thrall to a crass faith in material progress; while culture seems holistic, organic, sensuous, autotelic and recollective. However, I have reservations with Eagletons postulation of, first, a conflict between culture and civilization, and secondly, presentation of this conflict as a manifestation of a quarrel between tradition and modernity (Eagleton, 2006: 11). One of the greatest exports from the Enlightenment era was its universalism. Post-enlightenment political philosophy contributed significantly to critiques of enlightenments grand unilineal narratives regarding the evolution of universal humanity. We can look at the discourse of culture as a contribution to understanding the diversity inherent in different life-forms with their specific drivers of growth. Increasingly, it had become extremely perilous to relativize non-European cultures, which some thinkers of the time idealized as primitive (Eagleton, 2006: 12). In the 20th century in the primitivist features of modernism, a primitivism which goes hand-in-hand with the growth of modern cultural anthropology emerged, this time in postmodern guise, in form of a romanticizing of popular culture, which now plays the expressive, spontaneous, quasi-utopian role which primitive cultures had played previously (Eagleton, 2006: 12). While todate the concepts civilization and culture continue to be used interchangeably, there is also still a sense in which culture is still deployed almost as the opposite of civility (Eagleton, 2006: 13). It is not uncommon to encounter culture being used in reference to that which is tribal as opposed to the cosmopolitan. Culture continues to be closed to rational criticism; and a way of describing the life-forms of savages rather than a term for the civilized. If we accept the fact that the savages have culture, then the primitives can be depicted as cultured and the civilized as uncultured. In this sense, a reversal means that civilization can also be idealized (Eagleton, 2006: 13). If the imperial Modern states plundered the pre ­-modern ones, for whatever reasons, is it not a statement of both being uncultured and lack of civility, quite antithetical to what one could consider as civilization of the west. What sense doe it therefore make to posture as civilized and yet act in an uncultured manner? Can viewing culture as civilization, on one hand, and civilization as culture, on the other hand, help to resolve the impasse in the contemporary deployment of these concepts? One fact is clear, either way; it has potential to breed postmodern ambiguities of cultural relativism (Eagleton, 2006: 14). Alternatively, if culture is viewed, not as civilization, but as a way of life, it simply becomes an affirmation of sheer existence of life-forms in their pluralities (Eagleton, 2006: 13). Pluralizing the concept of culture comes at a price the idea of culture begins to entertain cultural non-normativities or queer cultures, in the name of diversity of cultural forms. Rather than dissolving discrete identities, it multiplies them rather than hybridization, which as we know, and as Edward Said observed, all cultures are involved in one another; none is single and pure, all are hybrid, heterogeneous, extraordinarily differentiated, and non-monolithic (Eagleton, 2006: 15). Attempts to valorize culture as a representation of particular life-forms associated with civility can also be perilous. There is a post-modern sense in which culture can be considered as an intellectual activity (science, philosophy and scholarship), as well as an imaginative pursuit of such exploits as music, painting and literature. This is the sense in which cultured people are considered to have culture. This sense suggests that science, philosophy, politics and economics can no longer be regarded as creative or imaginative. This also suggests that civilized values are to be found only in fantasy. And this is clearly a caustic comment on social reality. Culture comes to mean learning and the arts, activities confined to a tiny proportion of humanity, and it at once becomes impoverished as a concept (Eagleton, 2006: 16). Concluding Remarks: From the foregoing analyses, it is clear that understanding the relationship between culture and civilization is impossible until we cease to view the world in binaries in which the West (Europe) was constructed as advanced and developed with the non-West perceived as primitive, barbarous and pagan. Historically, the Wests claim of supremacy was always predicated on their provincialization of the non-west, whose behavioral patterns were judged from the experience of the West, and characterized in generalized terms as traditional customs and therefore culture. I agree with Benedict, that the West did all it could to universalize its experience to the rest of the world, even when this experience was different from that of those from the non-west (Benedict, 1934: 5). Assumptions of the mutual exclusivity of culture and civilization in society are premised on perceived irreconcilability of values and beliefs. Religion was always used in the West to posit a generalized provincialism of the non-west. It was the basis of prejudices around which superiority was justified. No ideas or institutions that held in the one were valid in the other. Rather all institutions were seen in opposing terms according as they belonged to one or the other of the very often slightly differentiated religions. In this contemporary era of highly globalized populations of footloose movements an

Monday, August 19, 2019

Transaction Cost Economics and Organized Labor Essays -- Economics Mar

Cooperation and exchange among individuals often organize in firms rather than adhering to market institutions. This anomaly of market systems can be explained through what Oliver Williamson calls â€Å"Transaction Cost Economics.† Transaction costs are defined as the â€Å"costs of running the economic system† (Williamson 18). Similar to friction in a physical system, transaction costs may be small compared to other costs such encountered by market players, but basing entire models on a ‘frictionless’ system is unrealistic. It is these transaction costs explain the development of firms and hierarchies rather than contracting by market forces. There are three limitations to a market system: bounded rationality, opportunism and asset specificity. Bounded rationality describes the limitations of knowledge by market players. Whereas they will act rationally in a market situation, they are not always presented with all the information required to make a rational decision. Opportunism arises when certain market players are unwilling to accept the status quo and believe they have the ability to improve their position. Finally, asset specificity refers to certain players having technical and contractual inseparabilites. An example of asset specificity is an accounting firm with a long term contract with a given company. After the long term contract expires, the accounting firm would be first in line to renew their contract with the given company. There may be other accounting firms in the market that could also offer similar accounting services, but the company will likely keep its original accounting firm. Switching wo uld incur transaction costs such as transferring of files over to the new accounting firm, legal fees associate... ... asset specificity can no longer be ignored as in classic market models. A highly trained employee is a very specific asset since a firm would incur great costs in training a novice employee and bringing the novice’s productivity up to that of a highly trained employee. Thus, a firm could not easily replace the highly trained employee as the case would be in a market situation. Thus non market contracts are forged to keep the specific asset that is high human capital. Williamson and Coase use transaction cost economics to explain why labor is often organized in firms rather than relying on market institutions. The increasing effect of asset specificity on the labor market is a key validation for their analysis. Firms are more efficient than market institutions in that they save on transaction costs associated with writing, signing and enforcing contracts.

Sunday, August 18, 2019

Adversity :: Free Essay Writer

" A man of character finds a special attractiveness in difficulty, since it is only by coming to grips with difficulty that he can realize his potentialities." -Charles DeGaulle This quote couldn't more true , even at the age of seventeen my life has been riddled with adversity. Everything from major health related problems from birth to my father being injured at work and finally my cousin dying from cancer , all have made me realize truly the strength that I possess to carry on. I have overcome and am continuing to overcome many health related issues all of which stem from birth. At birth my esophagus did not attach to my stomach and in order to correct this problem I had to undergo a major operation. This operation resulted in me needing a blood transfusion. Unfortunately in 1983 blood donors were not screened for diseases. I was one of many who contracted both hepatitis B and C. Hepatitis B was just jaundice and showed it self soon after the operation. Fortunately Hepatitis C is dormant for now , although it is thought around the age of thirty the true disease takes hold. There is always that daunting reality that eventually I will need a new liver. Another result of my stay in the hospital is my droopy eye caused by an incorrectly inserted IV. In this age of physical beauty and especially being a teenager it has been especially hard for me to not feel that I am inferior to everyone else. As a result of lack of funds my eye will have to wait to be correcte d. My father who has been out of work for three years because of a back injury that has left him in a tremendous amount of pain constantly. This has resulted in not only a financial strain on our family but also a burden of ache that tugs at me. I love my father dearly and it pains me to see him suffering. My parents are divorced and have been for some time, my father lives in California and before his injury I would visit at least two times a year for extended periods of time . Now that he is out of a job for all practical purposes my time with him has been cut to only a summer visit. This has also proved to be quite a emotional hardship , but as with everything else I have forced myself to accept it and to move on.

Catholic Social Justice Essay: Embryonic Stem Cell Research

As Christians we are instilled with the belief that all life is sacred from the moment of conception. But what if science could develop a cure for degenerative diseases using research which contradicts the firm beliefs of the Catholic Church. Could you trade your beliefs for a cure? The research into stem cells is proposing this very solution to modern day society. As technology gets more advanced we are constantly gathering more and more information about the science of human life. With this in mind however, who gets to decide when the cost of breaching human rights and decency out weighs the benefits. Embryonic stem cell research takes excess embryos from in-vitro fertilization and aborted fetuses to conduct research. The research is invasive and leads to the death of the fetus. How can we as Catholic’s who are called to be socially just promote this research when it challenges our beliefs to such a degree. The research of embryonic stem cells is a desecration to the validit y and sacredness of human-life and is therefore murder of human beings. The means of gaining material for this research promotes disrespect for the dignity of human life, murder, and also interferes with God’s plan for humanity. There are three main types of stem cell research which are currently being studied today. These types include umbilical-cord stem cells, adult stem cells, and embryonic stem cells. Due to their capability to develop into basically any kind of cell, stem cells exhibit a great promise in scientific experimentation. Scientists are pushing these forms of research due to the promise of finding cures for diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, stroke, spinal cord injuries, and other conditions and diseases. (Smith and Kaczor 48). The... ...Perf. Jim Carrey and Steve Carell. Twentieth Century Fox, 2008. Motion Picture. Human Embryo Experimentation. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, Bonnie Barbour, 2002. Print Irving, Dianne N. â€Å"Stem Cell Research: some Pro’s and Con’s.† physiciansforlife.ca. N.d. Web. 1 Jan 2011. Richert, Scott P. â€Å"The Catholic Church’s Teaching on Stem-Cell Research.† catholicism.about.com. N.d. Web. 1 January 2011. Smith, Janet E and Christopher Kaczor. Life Issues Medical Choices. Cincinnati: St. Anthony Messeger Press, 2007. Print. The English Standard Version Bible:   Containing the Old and New Testaments with Apocrypha.   Oxford:   Oxford UP, 2009.   Print. The Gospel of Life, Evangelium vitae. Pope John Paul II, March 25, 1995.

Saturday, August 17, 2019

Cyberschools: Education and Students

Over the years, technology has grown dramastically causing more schools to teach students over the web via Skype, video chats, and classroom discussions. Cyberschools are not for everyone, but it is an online school that allows students to take most or all their required courses online to obtain a diploma, certificate, or the proper training for a job. In this essay, I will argue the benefits of cyberschools creating a better learning environment and providing a better education to prepare students to be successful later in life. Cyberschools is an alternative to traditional school where students are allowed to just focus on their education without all the pressure coming from a traditional school. The growth of cyberschools is presented in the statistics, which â€Å"In 2008, 44 states offered significant online learning options for the estimated 1,030,000 students who are enrolled in online or blended full-time and supplemental courses. † This represents a growth of 47% since 2006 (Kowch, 2009). Cyberschools will create a better learning environment and provide a better education for students first, students can learn in the comfort of their own, or on the go without sitting in a room with all the distractions. For example, students that have parents in the military and that are deployed across seas, will not have to worry about missing assignments where they can go to any computer with internet access and complete that assignments and post to the discussion questions. Also, students do not have to worry about all the distractions that comes with traditional schools such as talking in class, bullies, and students coming to class late. Secondly, students have the options of choosing their program of choice and they have the flexibility when and where to take their courses, and how many hours they put into their studies. As well as, cyberschools allows students to work on their own time and at a pace that fit that student’s agenda. In the flexibility of cyberschools, it allows students if it is allowed by their instructors to work ahead in their courses. However, they do not have a set limit when they need to be in class during school. In addition, cyberschool would be great for professional students that have a job and have little time to set in a class setting in taking classes, which cyberschool provides the online learning that they need in completing their education without the middle man and distractions. Third, In cyberschools provides a better education and environment for students, is that the students can communicate with their instructors and classmates via e-mail or through their student portal without having to go a traditional school. Also, parents of students that are in pre-k and high schools attending cyberschools are more involved in their child’s education and they can keep track on how that student progress in their courses from day-to-day. Although, Cyberschools might not be for everyone, but it does have its benefits and advantages when it comes to students that have had a bad experience in traditional school from bullying and single parents that do not have babysitters, and professional students that want to go back to school, but do not have the time for taking courses in a class setting.

Friday, August 16, 2019

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry

In 2014, the Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded to Eric Betzig and William Moerner who, working separately, laid the foundation for SMLM. In essence, this method relies on the possibility to turn the fluorescence of individual molecules on and off. Scientists image the same area multiple times, allowing only a few interspersed molecules to glow each time. By superimposing these images, a dense super-image can be resolved at the nanolevel. With the development of this technique, Betzig and Moerner were able to overcome Abbe's diffraction limit, allowing for the production of high resolution images that, before SMLM, had not been possible. Towards the end of the nineteenth century, Ernst Abbe and Lord Rayleigh formulated what is commonly known as the â€Å"diffraction limit† for microscopy. Roughly speaking, this limit states that it is impossible to resolve two elements of a structure that are closer to each other than about half the wavelength (?) in the lateral (x, y) plane and even further apart in the longitudinal (z) plane. Another consequence of the same diffraction limit is that it is not possible to focus a laser beam to a spot of smaller dimension than about ?/2. In the case of light (optical) microscopy, an important tool for the imaging of biological structures, this means that two objects within a distance between 400/2 = 200 nm (far blue) and 700/2 = 350 nm (far red) cannot be resolved. Although this is no real limitation for electron microscopy, in which the wavelength is orders of magnitude smaller, this method is very difficult to use on living cells. For instance, the length-scale of the E. coli cell is about 1,000 nm (1 ?m) which is larger than, but of similar magnitude, as the diffraction limit. This explains why, prior to the development of SMLM, it was difficult to image details of the internal structures of living bacteria. Perhaps this may be the reason why bacteria are considered to be â€Å"primitive† organisms with little internal structure. With single-molecule localization, more precise structures of bacteria and other small-scale entities, e.g. individual viruses, can be resolved.In SMLM, the photochemical properties of fluorescent proteins are exploited to induce a weakly emissive or non-emissive â€Å"dark† state. From the dark state, very small populations of fluorophores are returned to an emissive state by shining a weak light pulse that activates only a fraction of the fluorophores present. These fluorophores are excited and detected by glowing until they are bleached, at which point the procedure is repeated on a new subgroup of fluorophores. In order to be identified, however, the emission profile must exhibit minimal overlap in each image. The centroid position of each identified molecule is statistically fitted, often to a Gaussian function, and with a level of precision scaling with the number of detected photons. By imaging and fitting single emitters to a sub-diffraction limited area over thousands of single images, enough data is generated to create a composite reconstruction of all identified emitters. Single-molecule localization is a broad category consisting of specific techniques, such as STORM, PALM, and GSDIM, that operate using the conceptually similar procedure outlined above. The main difference between these types is the exact fluorophore chemistry used to turn the fluorescence of individual molecules on and off. The real breakthrough in single-molecule localization occurred in 2006, when Betzig and colleagues coupled fluorescent proteins to the membrane enveloping the lysosome, the cell's recycling station. By activating only a fraction of the proteins at a time and superimposing the individual images, Betzig ended up with a super-resolution image of the lysosome membrane. Its resolution was far better than Abbe's diffraction limit of 0.2 ?m, a barrier that previous microscopy techniques could not bypass. Since the ground-breaking discovery, SMLM has allowed organelles and single molecules to be resolved with an order of magnitude better resolution (with a localization accuracy of about 10 nm), in multiple color channels, and in 2D as well as 3D. Single-molecule microscopy allows quantification of the number of proteins within biological assemblies and characterization of protein spatial distribution, permitting the determination of protein stoichiometry and distribution in signaling complexes. For instance, for the ?2 adrenergic receptors, SMLM was used to show that the receptors are partially organized in mini-clusters only in cardiomyocytes but not in any other cell lines, and that these oligomers are not lipid raft related but rather depend on actin cytoskeleton integrity. Most importantly, the results of this study were different from those obtained from a similar report which used near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM), demonstrating the better precision of SMLM over other techniques. An additional important aspect of SMLM is that it can be used with other imaging techniques to elucidate receptor complex structures. In one study by Nan et al. (2013), the powerful sensitivity of FRET imaging to detect receptor proximity was combined with the capability of SMLM to obtain direct visualization of receptor oligomers in studying RAF, a strategic protein involved in RAS signaling. By means of cluster analysis, Nan and colleagues were able to show how RAF exists between an inactive monomeric state in the cytosol and a multimeric condition at the cell membrane when activated. The results from single-molecule localization confirmed the importance of dimer and oligomer formation in RAF signaling, even though the precise biological role of these different multimeric states is yet to be determined.The better definition of biological structures in the nanometer range as a result of SMLM has had most relevance in the field of neuroscience, where the morphology of neurons composed of dendritic spines and synapses is not suitable for confocal microscopy. For example, Dani et al. (2010) used single-molecule microscopy to image presynaptic and postsynaptic scaffolding proteins in the glomeruli of the mouse olfactory bulb to show distinct punctate patterns that were not resolved by conventional fluorescence imaging. Lastly, the high resolution of SMLM has enabled a deeper understanding of chromosome organization and genome mapping. Wang et al. (2011) determined the distribution of nucleoid-associated proteins in live E. coli cells, while Baday et al. (2012) were able to label 91 out of a total of 107 reference sites on a 180 kb human BAC gene with a 100 bp resolution. DNA mapping with such resolution offers the potential to uncover genetic variance and to facilitate medical diagnosis in genetic diseases. Nonetheless, there are a few challenges that come with single-molecule microscopy, namely errors in detection efficiency and localization uncertainty. Since using fluorescent proteins as labels involves the complications associated with protein expression, errors in this step (e.g. misfolding, incomplete maturation, etc.) can lead to the production of label molecules that are not fluorescent. This can directly affect counting studies, as the number of counted molecules can be underestimated. However, it is possible to use the obtained count (after correcting for blinking artifacts) for the counting. In one study that involved identification of protein complex stoichiometry by counting photobleaching steps, Renz et al. (2012) accounted for errors in detection efficiency using a binomial model, which was found to provide accurate results. Incorporating detection efficiency into a model for the ratio between monomers and dimers can also rectify efficiency errors. In terms of localization uncertainty, each photon from the emitter molecule provides a sample of the point spread function (PSF) from the molecule. Based on these samples, single molecule localization algorithms provide an estimate for the position of the fluorescent molecule. This estimate is prone to uncertainties, especially due to limited sampling (i.e. the limited number of photons obtained from the molecule). By ensuring that the imaged molecules within a frame are spatially separated enough so that the localization algorithms can correctly identify them, however, it is possible to minimize the effect of localization uncertainty on counting measures. Despite its potential shortcomings, single-molecule localization enables high resolution imaging on the scale of nanometers, which defies Abbe's diffraction limit of 0.2 ?m. SMLM has been used to elucidate specific cell structures, as in Betzig's visualization of the lysosome membrane, and receptor complexes, as in the case of RAF. The technique has also been used to refute results of similar studies that used different imaging protocols, as shown when determining the specific location of ?2 adrenergic receptors. Overall, SMLM has ushered in a new era of high resolution imaging that not only allows for accurate insight into individual cell and protein structure, but also enables identification of abnormalities in cellular processes that ultimately manifest as genetic diseases.

Thursday, August 15, 2019

Drug Abuse in Inner Cities Essay

Inner-city areas have become the primary location for minorities, and the easiest place to find illegal drugs. Evidence shows that there is a link between the increase of illegal drug use, and the increase of minorities living in inner-city communities that are unemployed or collect welfare. Bruce D. Johnson states â€Å"Drug Abuse in the Inner City: Impact on Hard-Drug Users and the Community† and â€Å"Illicit drug use in the inner city expanded rapidly in the 1960s and has continued unabated into the 1990s† (9). Johnson also writes â€Å"During the period 1960-80, the number of persons living in communities primarily occupied by low-income (including welfare and unemployed) blacks and Hispanics approximately doubled† (10). The two previous quotes provide evidence that illegal drug use and minorities living in inner city communities have both increased over time. Minority drug abuse in the inner city results in the organization of drug distribution systems, whi ch can cause violence that negatively affect families. Drug abuse is a problem in inner cities, and has been for a long time. During World War II factory workers were necessary in order to meet the needs of the United States Army. Between the 1930s and 1940s, with the majority of those factories located in the North, a large group of Southern African Americans migrated to the Northern states in search for jobs. The low-wage factory jobs that African Americans and other minorities occupied forced them to reside in the ghettos. According to, â€Å"Drug Abuse in the Inner City: Impact on Hard-Drug Users and the Community† Johnson states that â€Å"Prior to 1940, about 20 percent of those arrested for narcotic law were black, a figure that increased to over 50 percent by the mid-1950s† (12). Johnson provides information that shows the migration of African Americans  sparked minority drug abuse within inner-city communities. In the 1950s, minorities use of illegal drugs began to increase, and have continued to into present day . The most dramatic increase in the use of drugs within minority communities occurred in the 1960s and the early 1970s. During that time period, many events took place that impacted drug abuse in the inner city’s minority communities. Johnson writes â€Å"Heroin use and addiction, particularly among minorities in the inner-city neighborhoods, exploded during the period 1965-73,† (14). This quote shows the highly addictive drug many minorities between the years 1965 to 1973 abused heroin. In the inner-city communities, those who used heroin most likely tried it for the first time between the ages of 15 and 21. Heroin is a highly addictive drug, and about half the users who try it are addicted within two years, (14). Johnson states that â€Å"The â€Å"heroin generation† of youths who became addicted in 1965-73 is evident in the black community in virtually every city with a population over 100,000† (14). This quote proves that it was common for minority commu nities to have a serious drug abuse problem, and that minorities were responsible for the popularity of heroin in the inner cities. Heroin was not the only drug abused as the popularity of drug use continued to increase. In 1975, cocaine became very popular in within minority communities throughout the city, and remained very popular until 1984. The amount of cocaine users began to decline due to the rise of another drug, crack. It is evident that if inner-city minority drug abuse continues to be neglected, no matter what illegal drug it is, it will gain popularity and users will abuse the illegal substance. Minorities are not only the majority of users; they are also the majority of distributors. In New York, African Americans and Puerto Ricans of the inner city communities often bought kilograms from the Italians, (18). Johnson writes â€Å"At the lower levels of the heroin distribution system, heroin user-dealers would generally be advanced several ‘bags’ of heroin to sell; they would use some and sell enough to pay their supplier in order to re-up† (18). This quote shows that the lower-lev el minority distributors would abuse the drugs advanced to them, by selling some and using the rest. Drugs in the inner city are in constant demand. Since drugs are in constant demand a complex system is needed to establish consistency in the process of  making the drugs, so they will always be available. The drug distribution system is broken down into five major roles; the five roles are low-level distributors, sellers, dealers, traffickers, and growers. (19) Historically minorities in the inner-city communities play huge roles in all 5 of these categories. Every level is expected to provide a certain level of production; if the level of production is not met then consequences occur. Not only was heroin a problem amongst the inner-city minorities, in the 1980s, crack emerged as another very popular drug on the streets. The Drug Enforcement Administration reported that four major minority groups all controlled crack trafficking: Jamaicans controlled the east coast and Midwestern states; Haitians controlled Florida and within two-hundred miles of Washington D.C.; Dominicans had control over New York and Massachusetts; and Black street gangs had control over most of the West Coast and western states. (22) Bruce D. Johnson states that â€Å"Newspaper reports and New York City police suggest that American blacks direct several local crack-selling groups in Brooklyn, Queens, and other boroughs†(22). Johnson suggests that African Americans, who also have distributors in Detroit, Washington D.C., Chicago, and Los Angeles, are the primary distributors of all the minority groups. Ethnic groups for all of the roles of distribution remain unclear, but based on evidence from many sources; minority groups control most of the distribution process. The abuse of drugs has had a huge impact on crime rate in America. Bruce states â€Å"In 1960, probably less than 5 percent of the total population, and probably less than a quarter of the criminal underclass, had ever used any type of illicit drug,† (40). This quote shows that when drug use was not popular, crime rate was lower. As the demand for drugs increases, and different distribution groups’ form, competition for â€Å"turfà ¢â‚¬  results in violence. Drug dealers are in constant competition with each other to see who can make the most money, throw the best parties, and who can be with the most beautiful women; drug dealers are relentless in proving themselves. Johnson writes, â€Å"Hard-drug sales have dramatically strengthened the subculture of violence. Old patterns of using violence and its threat to obtain money vie crime, and to defend masculinity, have been further transformed,† (27). This quote supports the idea drug dealers will do anything to accomplish their goals. Drug dealers regularly use violence to a prove point. With the rise of a variety of drugs in the inner-city, crime  rate also began to increase in America. Drug abusers lead to the organization of illegal drug distributors that commit violent crimes in order to satisfy their greed; they also take part in activities that negatively affect themselves and their loved ones. Drugs can affect relationships, mental and physical health, and sometimes lead to very serious crimes. In fact, peer-pressure has a huge effect on decision making within a group of friends. In the article â€Å"Interactive and Higher-Order Effects of Social Influences on Drug Use† Alan W. Stacy writes â€Å"Social influences may show not only linear or interactive effects on drug use, but in some instances may show an accelerated (concave upward) effect on behavior as social pressure to use drugs is increased†. (229) This quote states that an individual’s environment and the people around them can increase the possibility to use drugs; leading us to believe that minorities in the inner-cities, living in highly-populated communities, have a greater chance to be socially influenced to drug use. A study done showed that out of a hundred opiate abusers, forty-eight never married twenty-five married, one widowed, twelve divorced, and thirteen separated. (645) This study shows that abusing a drug affects marital status among drug abusers. Almost half of the opiate abusers never married, and a quarter of them married, but either separated or divorced. Marital status has a huge impact on African American children living in inner city. Johnson writes â€Å"The chance that a black child will experience poverty is almost 90 percent if he or she lives in a family headed by a single woman under the age of thirty† (10). This quote states that marital status has a huge impact on the life of African American children. Not only does drug abuse affect family situations in the inner-cities, it also affects inner-city residents’ health.Drug abuse is most common with minorities in inner-city communities, and poor-health is most common within these communities. Studies have been done to see if drug use relates to any specific disease. Johnson writes â€Å"the studies strongly suggest that heroin abusers constitute a substantial portion of all reported cases of the following conditions: hepatitis B, endocarditis, pneumonia, and trauma from assault†. (50) Johnson provides is evidence that those who abuse the drug heroin have a greater chance of being diagnosed with hepatitis B, endocarditis, pneumonia, and tr auma from assault. Not only can drug abuse lead to poor-health and diseases that can be life threatening, it also can  lead to drug related homicides. Johnson states that â€Å"In New York City, estimates of the proportion of homicides which were â€Å"drug related† have increased from about 24 percent in 1984 to about 56 percent in 1988†. (51) Johnson reveals that in just four years the increase in the use of drugs has also increased in the amount of drug related homicides. The â€Å"psychopharmacological† variety, homicides that occurred when an individual was heavily intoxicated by alcohol or heroin or while experiencing paranoia from a large dose of cocaine, was the most common of all homicides in New York City, which took place in twenty-five percent of homicides. (51) The abuse of illegal drugs can lead to fatal events; these fatal events have affected minority families in inner cities as hard, if not harder than any other group of people. Johnson writes â€Å"Between 1970 and 1985, the proportion of black children living in mother-only families increased from 30 to 51 percent†. Johnson strongly shows that a little more than half of black children have grown up without a father. Ever since illegal drug use became popular in the early 1900’s, minority inner-city drug abuse has continued to grow. Many things have an impact on who distributes and uses the drugs, along with where the drugs are popular; drugs are very abundant in inner cities, because of social and economic issues, minorities tend to be the distributers and users of the drugs. The majority of crime and violence in inner cities can be associated with drugs. Drug abuse along with the crime and violence that come with it has sabotaged many minority inner-city relationships with friends and families. Minorities who abuse drugs in the inner cities have created a very dangerous lifestyle for themselves and those around them. Works Cited Bruce D. Johnson Terry Williams, Kojo A. Dei and Harry Sanabria, â€Å"Drug Abuse in the Inner City: Impact on Hard-Drug Users and the Community†, Crime and justice13 (1990): 9-67. JSTOR. Web. 3 November 2014. Richard R. Clayton, â€Å"The Family and Federal Drug Abuse Policies. Programs: Toward Making the Invisible Family Visible†, Family Policy (Aug., 1979): 637-647. JSTOR. Web. 3 November 2014. Stacy, W. Alan. â€Å"Interactive and Higher-Order Effects of Social Influences on Drug Use.† Journal of Health and Social Behavior 33:3 (Sep. 1992). 226-241. American Sociological Association. Web 31 October 2014.